Host plants for specialist bees of the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States

Jarrod Fowler

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Introduction

Approximately 30% of the ~450 species of bees native to the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States are pollen specialists (Fowler 2016a, 2016b, Fowler & Droege 2016)*. This website provides sources of host plants for specialist bees of the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia**. Consult the table below for beneficial insect garden or habitat enhancement plant selections. Verify state introduced-invasive-noxious and threatened-endangered plants listings before selecting species for enhancements. Match host plant durations, habits, and habitats with site-specific conditions. Follow source links to study and purchase regionally-grown host plant seeds and transplants. Expand host plant species abundance and richness for overall biodiversity. Amidst the Holocene Extinction: humans, be ambitious, collaborate with nonhumans!

*For more information, visit: Specialist Bees of the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States.
**Regional availability mutable. Species and sources are neither exhaustive nor necessarily endorsed.

Tables

Table 1. Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern native pollen specialist bee host plant families (n = 26), genera (n = 81), and species (n = 239) with taxonomic authorities, common names, durations (Annual = 9, Biennial = 6, Perennial = 224), habits (Forb = 184, Shrub = 51, Tree = 4), habitats (OBLigate wetland = 23, FACultative Wetland = 54, FACultative = 57, FACultative Upland = 88, obligate UPLand = 17), and links to sources (N = 58; n = 2,056) of seeds (S = 268) or transplants (T = 1,788) during 2018.
Family: Subfamily: TribeGenus speciesAuthorityCommon nameDurationHabitHabitatSource
Apiaceae: Apioideae: SelineaeZizia aptera(A. Gray) FernaldMeadow ziziaPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T
Zizia aurea(L.) W.D.J. KochGolden ziziaPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
AquifoliaceaeIlex glabra(L.) A. GrayInkberryPerennialShrubFACW T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Ilex montanaTorr. & A. Gray ex A. GrayMountain hollyPerennialShrubFACU S, S
Ilex mucronata(L.) Powell, Savolainen & AndrewsCatberryPerennialShrubOBL S, S, T, T
Ilex opacaAitonAmerican hollyPerennialTreeFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Ilex verticillata(L.) A. GrayCommon winterberryPerennialShrubFACW S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeBaccharis halimifoliaL.Eastern baccharisPerennialShrubFACW T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeBoltonia asteroides(L.) L’Hér.White doll’s daisyPerennialForbFACW S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeChrysopsis mariana(L.) ElliotMaryland goldenasterPerennialForbUPL S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeDoellingeria umbellata(Mill.) NeesParasol whitetopPerennialForbFACW S, S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeErigeron pulchellusMichx.Robin’s plantainPerennialForbFACU T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeEurybia divaricata(L.) G.L. NesomWhite wood asterPerennialForbFACU S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Eurybia macrophylla(L.) Cass.Bigleaf asterPerennialForbUPL S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Eurybia spectabilis(Aiton) G.L. NesomEastern showy asterPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeEuthamia caroliniana(L.) Greene ex Porter & BrittonSlender goldentopPerennialForbFAC S, T
Euthamia graminifolia(L.) Nutt.Flat-top goldenrodPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeIonactis linariifolius(L.) GreeneFlaxleaf whitetop asterPerennialForbFACU S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeOclemena acuminata(Michx.) GreeneWhorled wood asterPerennialForbFACU T
Oligoneuron rigidum(L.) SmallStiff goldenrodPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaePityopsis falcata(Pursh) Nutt.Sickleleaf silkgrassPerennialForbUPL T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeSericocarpus asteroides(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.Toothed whitetop asterPerennialForbFACU T
Sericocarpus linifolius(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.Narrowleaf whitetop asterPerennialForbFACU T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeSolidago altissimaL.Tall goldenrodPerennialForbFACU S, T
Solidago argutaAitonAtlantic goldenrodPerennialForbFACU T, T
Solidago bicolorL.White goldenrodPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Solidago caesiaL.Wreath goldenrodPerennialForbFACU S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Solidago canadensisL.Canada goldenrodPerennialForbFACU S, T, T
Solidago flexicaulisL.Zigzag goldenrodPerennialForbFACU S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Solidago giganteaAitonGiant goldenrodPerennialForbFACW S
Solidago junceaAitonEarly goldenrodPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T
Solidago nemoralisAitonGray goldenrodPerennialForbUPL S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Solidago odoraAitonAnisescented goldenrodPerennialForbUPL S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Solidago patulaMuhl. ex Willd.Roundleaf goldenrodPerennialForbOBL S, S
Solidago puberulaNutt.Downy goldenrodPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T
Solidago rugosaMill.Wrinkleleaf goldenrodPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Solidago sempervirensL.Seaside goldenrodPerennialForbFACW S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Solidago speciosaNutt.Showy goldenrodPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Solidago squarrosaNutt.Stout goldenrodPerennialForbFAC S, T
Solidago strictaAitonWand goldenrodPerennialForbOBL S, T
Solidago uliginosaNutt.Bog goldenrodPerennialForbOBL S, T, T
Solidago ulmifoliaMuhl. ex Willd.Elmleaf goldenrodPerennialForbFACW S, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: AstereaeSymphyotrichum cordifolium(L.) G.L. NesomCommon blue wood asterPerennialForbFAC S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Symphyotrichum dumosum(L.) G.L. NesomRice button asterPerennialForbFAC T, T, T, T
Symphyotrichum ericoides(L.) G.L. NesomWhite heath asterPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Symphyotrichum laeve(L.) Á. Löve & D. LöveSmooth blue asterPerennialForbFACU S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Symphyotrichum lanceolatum(Willd.) G.L. NesomWhite panicle asterPerennialForbFACW S, T, T
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum(L.) Á. Löve & D. LöveCalico asterPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Symphyotrichum novae-angliae(L.) G.L. NesomNew England asterPerennialForbFACW S, S, S, S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii(L.) G.L. NesomNew York asterPerennialForbFACW S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Symphyotrichum oblongifolium(Nutt.) G.L. Nesom Aromatic asterPerennialForbFACU S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Symphyotrichum patens(Aiton) G.L. NesomLate purple asterPerennialForbFAC S, T, T, T, T
Symphyotrichum pilosum(Willd.) G.L. NesomHairy white oldfield asterPerennialForbFACU S, S, T, T, T
Symphyotrichum prenanthoides(Muhl. ex Willd.) G.L. NesomCrokedstem asterPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T
Symphyotrichum puniceum(L.) Á. Löve & D. LövePurplestem asterPerennialForbOBL S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Symphyotrichum racemosum(Elliott) G.L. NesomSmooth white oldfield asterPerennialForbFACW T
Symphyotrichum undulatum(L.) G.L. NesomWavyleaf asterPerennialForbFAC T
Symphyotrichum urophyllum(Lindl.) G.L. NesomWhite arrowleaf asterPerennialForbFAC S
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: CoreopsideaeBidens aristosa(Michx.) BrittonBearded beggartickBiennialForbFACW S
Bidens cernuaL.Nodding beggartickAnnualForbOBL S, T
Bidens frondosaL.Devil’s beggartickAnnualForbFACW S
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: CoreopsideaeCoreopsis grandifloraHogg ex SweetLargeflower tickseedPerennialForbFACU S, T
Coreopsis lanceolataL.Lanceleaf tickseedPerennialForbFACU S, S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Coreopsis tripterisL.Tall tickseedPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Coreopsis verticillataL.Whorled tickseedPerennialForbFACU S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: EupatorieaeBrickellia eupatorioides(L.) ShinnersFalse bonesetPerennialForbFACU S, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: EupatorieaeEupatorium hyssopifoliumL.Hyssopleaf thoroughwortPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Eupatorium perfoliatumL.Common bonesetPerennialForbFACW S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Eupatorium rotundifoliumL.Roundleaf thoroughwortPerennialForbUPL T, T
Eupatorium rugosumHoutt.White snakerootPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T
Eupatorium sessilifoliumL.Upland bonesetPerennialForbFACU T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: EupatorieaeLiatris asperaMichx.Tall blazing starPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T, T, T
Liatris pycnostachyaMichx.Prairie blazing starPerennialForbFAC S, T, T, T
Liatris scariosa(L.) Willd.Devil’s bitePerennialForbUPL S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Liatris spicata(L.) Willd.Dense blazing starPerennialForbFAC S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Liatris squarrosa(L.) Michx.Scaly blazing starPerennialForbFACU S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: EupatorieaeEutrochium dubium(Willd. ex Poir.) E.E. LamontCoastal plain joe pye weedPerennialForbFACW S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Eutrochium fistulosum(Barratt) E.E. LamontTrumpetweedPerennialForbFACW S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Eutrochium maculatum(L.) E.E. LamontSpotted joe pye weedPerennialForbOBL S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Eutrochium purpureum(L.) E.E. LamontSweetscented joe pye weedPerennialForbFAC S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: HelenieaeHelenium autumnaleL.Common sneezeweedPerennialForbFACW S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Helenium flexuosumRaf.Purplehead sneezeweedPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: HeliantheaeChrysogonum virginianumL.Green and goldPerennialForbFACW T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: HeliantheaeEchinacea pallida(Nutt.) Nutt.Pale purple coneflowerPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T
Echinacea purpurea(L.) MoenchEastern purple coneflowerPerennialForbFAC S, S, S, S, S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: HeliantheaeHelianthus angustifoliusL.Swamp sunflowerPerennialForbFACW S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Helianthus decapetalusL.Thinleaf sunflowerPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Helianthus divaricatusL.Woodland sunflowerPerennialForbUPL S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Helianthus giganteusL.Giant sunflowerPerennialForbFACW S, S, T, T, T, T
Helianthus maximilianiSchrad.Maximilian sunflowerPerennialForbUPL S, S, T, T
Helianthus mollisLam.Ashy sunflowerPerennialForbFACU T
Helianthus occidentalisRiddell.Fewleaf sunflowerPerennialForbFACU T
Helianthus strumosusL.Paleleaf woodland sunflowerPerennialForbFACU T, T
Helianthus tuberosusL.Jerusalem artichokePerennialForbFACU T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: HeliantheaeHeliopsis helianthoides(L.) SweetSmooth oxeyePerennialForbFACU S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: HeliantheaeParthenium integrifoliumL.Wild quininePerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: HeliantheaeRatibida columnifera(Nutt.) Wooton & Standl.Upright prairie coneflowerPerennialForbFAC S, S, S, T
Ratibida pinnata(Vent.) BarnhartPinnate prairie coneflowerPerennialForbFACU S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: HeliantheaeRudbeckia fulgidaL.Orange coneflowerPerennialForbFACW S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Rudbeckia hirtaL.Blackeyed SusanAnnualForbFACU S, S, S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Rudbeckia laciniataL.Cutleaf coneflowerPerennialForbFACW S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Rudbeckia subtomentosaPurshSweet coneflowerPerennialForbFACU S, S, T, T, T
Rudbeckia trilobaL.Browneyed SusanPerennialForbFACU S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T,
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: HeliantheaeSilphium laciniatumL.CompassplantPerennialForbFACW S, S
Silphium perfoliatumL.Cup plantPerennialForbFACW S, T, T, T, T, T, T
Silphium terebinthinaceumJacq.Prairie rosinweedPerennialForbFAC S, T
Silphium trifoliatumL.Whorled rosinweedPerennialForbFACW S, T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: HeliantheaeVerbesina alternifolia(L.) Britton ex KearneyWingstemPerennialForbFACW S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T
Verbesina occidentalis(L.) WalterYellow crownbeardPerennialForbFACU T
Asteraceae: Asteroideae: SenecioneaePackera anonyma(Alph. Wood) W.A. Weber & Á. LöveSmall's ragwortPerennialForbUPL T
Packera aurea(L.) Á. Löve & D. LöveGolden ragwortPerennialForbFACW S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Packera obovata(Muhl. ex Willd.) Weber & Á. LöveRoundleaf ragwortPerennialForbFACU T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Packera paupercula(Michx.) Á. Löve & D. LöveBalsam groundselPerennialForbFAC T
Asteraceae: Carduoideae: CynareaeCirsium discolor(Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng.Field thistleBiennialForbUPL S, T
Cirsium pumilumSpreng.Pasture thistlePerennialForbFAC T, T
Asteraceae: Cichoriodeae: CichorieaeHieracium gronoviiL.QueendevilPerennialForbUPL T
Hieracium kalmiiL.Kalm's hawkweedPerennialForbFACU S
Asteraceae: Cichoriodeae: CichorieaeKrigia biflora(Walter) S.F. BlakeTwoflower dwarfdandelionPerennialForbFACU T, T, T, T
Asteraceae: Cichoriodeae: VernonieaeVernonia fasciculataMichx.Prairie ironweedPerennialForbFACW S, S, T, T
Vernonia gigantea(Walter) Trel.Giant ironweedPerennialForbFAC S, T
Vernonia glauca(L.) Willd.Broadleaf ironweedPerennialForbFAC T, T, T, T
Vernonia noveboracensis(L.) Michx.New York ironweedPerennialForbFACW S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Brassicaceae: ArabideaeArabis laevigata(Muhl. ex Willd.) Poor.Smooth rockcressBiennialForbFACU T
Arabis lyrataL.Lyrate rockcressBiennialForbFACU T
Brassicaceae: CardamineaeCardamine concatenata(Michx.) Sw.Cutleaf toothwortPerennialForbFACU T
Cardamine diphylla(Michx.) Alph. WoodCrinklerootPerennialForbFACU T
Campanulaceae: CampanuloideaeCampanula rotundifoliaL.Bluebell bellflowerPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T
Campanulaceae: CampanuloideaeCampanulastrum americanum (L.) Small American bellflowerAnnualForbFAC S, T
Cornaceae: CornoideaeCornus (Swida) alternifoliaL. f.Alternateleaf dogwoodPerennialShrubFACU S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Cornus (Swida) amomumMill.Silky dogwoodPerennialShrubFACW S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Cornus (Swida) racemosaLam.Gray dogwoodPerennialShrubFAC S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Cornus (Swida) rugosaLamRoundleaf dogwoodPerennialShrubFACU T
Cornus (Swida) sericeaL.Redosier dogwoodPerennialShrubFACW S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Ericaceae: ArbutoideaeArctostaphylos uva-ursi(L.) Spreng.KinnikinnickPerennialShrubUPL T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Ericaceae: Ericoideae: PhyllodoceaeEpigaea repensL.Trailing arbutusPerennialShrubFAC T
Ericaceae: Ericoideae: PhyllodoceaeKalmia angustifoliaL.Sheep laurelPerennialShrubFAC T, T, T, T, T, T
Kalmia latifoliaL.Mountain laurelPerennialShrubFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Ericaceae: Ericoideae: RhodoreaeRhododendron arborescens(Pursh.) Torr.Smooth azaleaPerennialShrubFAC T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Rhododendron atlanticum(Ashe) RehderDwarf azaleaPerennialShrubFAC T, T, T, T, T, T
Rhododendron calendulaceum(Michx.) Torr.Flame azaleaPerennialShrubFAC T, T, T, T, T, T
Rhododendron canadense(L.) Torr.RhodoraPerennialShrubFACW T, T
Rhododendron groenlandicum(Oeder) Kron & JuddBog Labrador teaPerennialShrubOBL T, T
Rhododendron maximumL.Great laurelPerennialShrubFAC S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Rhododendron periclymenoides(Michx.) ShinnersPink azaleaPerennialShrubFAC T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Rhododendron prinophyllum(Small) MillaisEarly azaleaPerennialShrubFAC T, T, T, T
Rhododendron viscosum(L.) Torr.Swamp azaleaPerennialShrubFACW S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae: AndromedeaeAndromeda polifoliaL.Bog rosemaryPerennialShrubOBL T
Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae: GaultherieaeChamaedaphne calyculata(L.) MoenchLeatherleafPerennialShrubOBL T
Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae: GaultherieaeEubotrys racemosus(L.) Nutt.Swamp doghobblePerennialShrubFACW T
Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae: GaultherieaeGaultheria procumbensL.Eastern teaberryPerennialShrubFACU T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae: LyonieaeLyonia ligustrina(L.) DC.MaleberryPerennialShrubFACW S, T, T, T
Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae: VaccinieaeGaylussacia baccata(Wangenh.) K. KochBlack huckleberryPerennialShrubFACU T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae: VaccinieaeVaccinium angustifoliumAitonLowbush blueberryPerennialShrubFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Vaccinium corymbosumL.Highbush blueberryPerennialShrubFACW S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Vaccinium fuscatumAitonBlack highbush blueberryPerennialShrubFACW S
Vaccinium macrocarponAitonCranberryPerennialShrubOBL S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Vaccinium pallidumAitonBlue Ridge blueberryPerennialShrubFACU T
Vaccinium stamineumL.DeerberryPerennialShrubFACU T
Fabaceae: Cercidoideae: CercideaeCercis canadensisL.Eastern redbudPerennialTreeFACU S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Fabaceae: Papilionoideae: PhaseoleaeStrophostyles helvola(L.) ElliotAmberique-beanAnnualForbFAC T
Fabaceae: Papilionoideae: PhaseoleaeStrophostyles umbellata(Muhl. ex Willd.) BrittonPink fuzzybeanPerennialForbFACU T
GeraniaceaeGeranium maculatumL.Spotted geraniumPerennialForbFACU S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Hydrophyllaceae: HydrophylloideaeHydrophyllum canadenseL.Bluntleaf waterleafPerennialForbFAC T
Hydrophyllum virginianumL.Eastern waterleafPerennialForbFAC T, T
Hydrophyllaceae: HydrophylloideaePhacelia tanacetifoliaBenth.Lacy phaceliaAnnualForbFACU S, S, S
Lamiaceae: Nepetoideae: MentheaeMonarda bradburianaBeckEastern beebalmPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Monarda clinopodiaL.White bergamotPerennialForbFACU T, T
Monarda didymaL.Scarlet beebalmPerennialForbFACU T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Monarda fistulosaL.Wild bergamotPerennialForbFACU S, S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Monarda mediaWilld.Purple bergamotPerennialForbFAC T
Monarda punctataL.Spotted beebalmAnnualForbUPL S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Liliaceae: Liliodeae: TulipeaeErythronium americanumKer Gawl.TroutlilyPerennialForbFACW T, T, T, T
Liliaceae: Uvularioideae: UvularieaeUvularia grandifloraSm.Largeflower bellwortPerennialForbFAC T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Uvularia perfoliataL.Perfoliate bellwortPerennialForbFACU T, T
Uvularia perfoliataL.Perfoliate bellwortPerennialForbFACU T
Uvularia sessilifoliaL.Sessileleaf bellwortPerennialForbFACU T, T
Malvaceae: Malvoideae: HibisceaeHibiscus laevisAll.Halberdleaf rosemallowPerennialForbOBL S, T, T, T, T, T
Hibiscus moscheutosL.Crimsoneyed rosemallowPerennialForbOBL S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
MontiaceaeClaytonia carolinianaMichx.Carolina springbeautyPerennialForbFACU T
Claytonia virginicaL.Virginia springbeautyPerennialForbFACU T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Onagraceae: Onagroideae: OnagreaeOenothera biennisL.Common evening primroseBiennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T
Oenothera fruticosaL.Narrowleaf evening primrosePerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Oenothera perennisL.Little evening primrosePerennialForbFAC T, T
Oenothera speciosaNutt.PinkladiesPerennialForbFACU S
Polemoniaceae: Polemonioideae: PolemonieaePolemonium reptansL.Greek valerianPerennialForbFAC S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Pontederiaceae: PontederieaePontederia cordataL.PickerelweedPerennialForbOBL S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Primulaceae: LysimachioideaeLysimachia ciliataL.Fringed loosestrifePerennialForbFACW S, T, T, T, T, T, T
Lysimachia hybridaMichx.Lowland yellow loosestrifePerennialForbOBL T
Lysimachia lanceolataWalterLanceleaf loosestrifePerennialForbFAC T, T
Lysimachia terrestris(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.Earth loosestrifePerennialForbOBL T, T, T
RhamnaceaeCeanothus americanusL.New Jersey teaPerennialShrubFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Rosaceae: Rosoideae: ColurieaeGeum aleppicumJacq.Yellow avensPerennialForbFAC S, T
Geum canadenseJacq.White avensPerennialForbFAC S, T
Rosaceae: Rosoideae: ColurieaeWaldsteinia fragarioides(Michx.) Tratt.Appalachian barren strawberryPerennialForbFAC T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Rosaceae: Rosoideae: PotentilleaeDasiphora fruticosa(L.) Rydb.Shrubby cinquefoilPerennialShrubFACW T, T, T, T, T
Rosaceae: Rosoideae: PotentilleaeFragaria vescaL.Woodland strawberryPerennialForbUPL T, T
Fragaria virginianaDuchesneVirginia strawberryPerennialForbFACU T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Rosaceae: Rosoideae: PotentilleaePotentilla simplexMichx.Common cinquefoilPerennialForbFACU T
Rosaceae: Rosoideae: PotentilleaeSibbaldiopsis tridentata(Aiton.) Rydb.Shrubby fivefingersPerennialForbFACU T, T, T, T, T
Rubiaceae: Rubioideae: HedyotideaeHoustonia caeruleaL.Azure bluetPerennialForbFACU T, T
Salicaceae: SaliceaeSalix amygdaloides AnderssonPeachleaf willowPerennialShrubFACW T
Salix bebbianaSarg.Bebb willowPerennialShrubFACW T, T, T
Salix candidaFlueggé ex Willd.Sageleaf willowPerennialShrubOBL T
Salix carolinianaMichx.Coastal plain willowPerennialTreeOBL T, T
Salix discolorMuhl.Pussy willowPerennialShrubFACW T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Salix eriocephalaMichx.Missouri River willowPerennialShrubFACW T, T, T
Salix humilisMarshallPrairie willowPerennialShrubFACU T
Salix interiorRowleeSandbar willowPerennialShrubFACW T, T
Salix lucidaMuhl.Shining willowPerennialShrubFACW T, T, T
Salix myricoidesMuhl.Bayberry willowPerennialShrubFACW T
Salix nigraMarshallBlack willowPerennialTreeOBL T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Salix pellitaAnderssonSatiny willowPerennialShrubFACW T
Salix petiolarisSm.Meadow willowPerennialShrubFACW T
Salix pyrifoliaAnderssonBalsam willowPerennialShrubFACW T
Salix sericeaMarshallSilky willowPerennialShrubOBL T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Salix serissima(L.H. Bailey) FernaldAutumn willowPerennialShrubOBL T
SaxifragaceaeHeuchera americanaL.American alumrootPerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Heuchera villosaMichx.Hairy alumrootPerennialForbFACU T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
SaxifragaceaeTiarella cordifoliaL.Heartleaf foamflowerPerennialForbFACU T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Scrophulariaceae: CheloneaePenstemon calycosusSmallLongsepal beardtonguePerennialForbFACU S, T, T, T, T
Penstemon digitalisNutt. ex SimsFoxglove beardtonguePerennialForbFAC S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Penstemon hirsutus(L.) Willd.Hairy beardtonguePerennialForbFACU S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Penstemon laevigatusAitonEastern smooth beardtonguePerennialForbFACU S, S, T
Penstemon pallidusSmallPale beardtonguePerennialForbUPL S
Penstemon tubaeflorusNutt.White wand beardtonguePerennialForbFAC S, T
Verbenaceae: VerbeneaeVerbena hastataL.Swamp verbenaBiennialForbFACW S, S, S, S, S, S, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Verbena strictaVent.Hoary verbenaAnnualForbFAC S, S, T, T, T
Verbena urticifoliaL.White vervainPerennialForbFAC S, S, T
Violaceae: Violoideae: VioleaeViola blandaWilld.Sweet white violetPerennialForbFACW T
Viola canadensisL.Canadian white violetPerennialForbFACU T, T
Viola cucullataAitonMarsh blue violetPerennialForbOBL T, T
Viola labradoricaSchrankAlpine violetPerennialForbFAC T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Viola lanceolataL.Big white violetPerennialForbOBL T, T
Viola pedataL.Birdfoot violetPerennialForbUPL T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Viola pubescensAitonDowny yellow violetPerennialForbFACU T, T, T
Viola rotundifoliaMichx.Roundleaf yellow violetPerennialForbFAC T
Viola sagittataAitonArrowleaf violetPerennialForbFAC T, T, T
Viola sororiaWilld.Common blue violetAnnualForbFAC T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T, T
Viola striataAitonStriped cream violetPerennialForbFACW T, T

Recommendations

Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern horticulturists should prioritize propagation of ecoregional host plants for specialist bees. Approximately half of the listed plant species are widely available, but annuals and biennials, plus obligate wetland and upland species are underrepresented. Many underrepresented or unlisted native genera or species should be propagated in the region. Here are nearly 60 species of specialist bee host plants that remain unpropagated in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast (Underlined = Prioritized):
  • Aquifoliaceae - Ilex laevigata (Pursh) A. Gray - Smooth winterberry - Perennial - Shrub - OBL
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Astereae - Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. - Eastern daisy fleabane - Annual - Forb - FACU
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Astereae - Erigeron philadelphicus L. - Philadelphia fleabane - Biennial - Forb - FACU
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Astereae - Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. - Prairie fleabane - Biennial - Forb - FACU
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Astereae - Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britton & Rusby - Camphorweed - Perennial - Forb - FACU
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Astereae - Pyrrhopappus carolinianus (Walter) DC. - Carolina desert-chicory - Annual - Forb - FACW
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Astereae - Symphyotrichum praealtum (Poir.) G.L. Nesom - Willowleaf aster - Perennial - Forb - FACW
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Astereae - Symphyotrichum shortii (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom - Short's aster - Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Coreopsideae - Bidens connata - Muhl. ex Willd. - Purplestem beggartick - Annual - Forb - FACW
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Coreopsideae - Bidens coronata - (L.) Britton - Crowned beggartick - Annual - Forb - OBL
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Heliantheae - Helianthus grosseserratus M. Martens - Sawtooth sunflower - Perennial - Forb - FACW
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Heliantheae - Helianthus hirsutus Raf. - Hairy sunflower - Perennial - Forb - FACU
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Heliantheae - Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. - Prairie sunflower - Annual - Forb - FACU
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Heliantheae - Verbesina encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray - Golden crownbeard -Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Heliantheae - Verbesina virginica L. - White crownbeard - Perennial - Forb - FACU
  • Asteraceae: Asteroideae: Senecioneae - Packera plattensis - (Nutt.) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve - Prairie groundsel - Biennial - Forb - FACU
  • Asteraceae: Carduoideae: Cynareae - Cirsium altissimum (L.) - Tall thistle - Biennial - Forb - FACU
  • Asteraceae: Carduoideae: Cynareae - Cirsium muticum Michx. - Swamp thistle - Biennial - Forb - OBL
  • Asteraceae: Cichoriodeae: Cichorieae - Krigia virginica - (L.) Willd. - Virginia dwarfdandelion Annual - Forb - UPL
  • Asteraceae: Cichoriodeae: Cichorieae - Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fernald - Tall blue lettuce - Annual - Forb - FAC
  • Asteraceae: Cichoriodeae: Cichorieae - Lactuca canadensis L. - Canada lettuce - Annual - Forb - FACU
  • Brassicaceae: Arabideae - Arabis canadensis L. - Sicklepod - Biennial - Forb - FACU
  • Brassicaceae: Arabideae - Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh. - Tower rockcress - Biennial - Forb - FACU
  • Brassicaceae: Cardamineae - Cardamine douglassii Britton - Limestone bittercress - Perennial - Forb - FACW
  • Campanulaceae: Campanuloideae - Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. - Clasping Venus' looking-glass - Annual - Forb - FACU
  • Convolvulaceae: Ipomoeeae - Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G. Mey. - Man of the earth - Perennial - Forb - FACU
  • Convolvulaceae: Convolvuleae - Calystegia catesbeiana Pursh - Catesby's false bindweed - Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Convolvulaceae: Convolvuleae - Calystegia macounii (Greene) Brummitt - Macoun's false bindweed - Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Convolvulaceae: Convolvuleae - Calystegia spithamaea (L.) Pursh - Low false bindweed - Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Ericaceae: Ericoideae: Phyllodoceae - Kalmia polifolia Wagenh. - Bog laurel - Perennial - Shrub - OBL
  • Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae: Lyonieae - Lyonia mariana (L.) D. Don - Piedmont staggerbush - Perennial - Shrub - FAC
  • Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae: Vaccinieae - Gaylussacia frondosa (L.) Torr. & A. Gray ex Torr. - Blue huckleberry - Perennial - Shrub - FAC
  • Ericaceae: Vaccinioideae: Vaccinieae - Vaccinium oxycoccos L. - Small cranberry - Perennial - Shrub - OBL
  • Fabaceae: Faboideae: Diocleae - Galactia regularis (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. - Eastern milkpea - Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Fabaceae: Faboideae: Diocleae - Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton - Downy milkpea - Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Fabaceae: Papilionoideae: Phaseoleae - Strophostyles leiosperma (Torr. & A. Gray) Piper - Slickseed fuzzybean - Annual - Forb - FAC
  • Geraniaceae - Geranium carolinianum L. - Carolina geranium - Biennial - Forb - FACU
  • Geraniaceae - Geranium robertianum L. - Robert geranium - Biennial - Forb - FACU
  • Hydrophyllaceae: Hydrophylloideae - Hydrophyllum appendiculatum Michx. - Great waterleaf - Biennial - Forb - FAC
  • Hydrophyllaceae: Hydrophylloideae - Nemophila aphylla (L.) Brummitt - Smallflower baby blue eyes - Annual - Forb - FACW
  • Hydrophyllaceae: Hydrophylloideae - Phacelia bipinnatifida Michx. - Fernleaf phacelia - Biennial - Forb - FAC
  • Hydrophyllaceae: Hydrophylloideae - Phacelia purshii Buckley - Miami mist - Annual - Forb - FAC
  • Liliaceae: Liliodeae: Tulipeae - Erythronium albidum Nutt. - White fawnlily - Perennial - Forb - FACU
  • Onagraceae: Onagroideae: Onagreae - Oenothera gaura W.L. Wagner & Hoch - Biennial beeblossom - Biennial - Forb - FACU
  • Onagraceae: Onagroideae: Onagreae - Oenothera laciniata Hill - Cutleaf evening primrose - Annual - Forb - FACU
  • Onagraceae: Onagroideae: Onagreae - Oenothera pilosella Raf. - Meadow evening primrose - Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Primulaceae: Lysimachioideae - Lysimachia quadriflora L. - Fourflower yellow loosestrife - Perennial - Forb - OBL
  • Primulaceae: Lysimachioideae - Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. - Tufted loosestrife - Perennial - Forb - OBL
  • Rosaceae: Rosoideae: Potentilleae - Potentilla arguta Pursh - Tall cinquefoil - Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Rosaceae: Rosoideae: Potentilleae - Potentilla canadensis L. - Dwarf cinquefoil - Perennial - Forb - FACU
  • Rosaceae: Rosoideae: Potentilleae - Potentilla paradoxa Nutt. - Paradox cinquefoil - Annual - Forb - FACW
  • Rubiaceae: Rubioideae: Hedyotideae - Houstonia pusilla Schoepf - Tiny bluet - Annual - Forb - FACU
  • Scrophulariaceae: Gerardieae - Agalinis paupercula (A. Gray) Britton) - Smallflower false foxglove - Annual - Forb - OBL
  • Scrophulariaceae: Gerardieae - Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell p - Purple false foxglove - Annual - Forb - FACW
  • Scrophulariaceae: Gerardieae - Agalinis tenuifolia (Vahl) Raf. - Slenderleaf false foxglove - Annual - Forb - FACW
  • Solanaceae: Solanoideae: Physalideae - Physalis grisea (Waterf.) M. Martinez - Strawberry-tomato - Annual - Forb - FAC
  • Solanaceae: Solanoideae: Physalideae - Physalis heterophylla Nees - Clammy groundcherry - Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Solanaceae: Solanoideae: Physalideae - Physalis longifolia Nutt. - Longleaf groundcherry - Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Solanaceae: Solanoideae: Physalideae - Physalis pubescens L. - Husk tomato - Annual - Forb - UPL
  • Solanaceae: Solanoideae: Physalideae - Physalis virginiana Mill. - Virginia groundcherry - Annual - Forb - FAC
  • Violaceae: Violoideae: Violeae - Viola macloskeyi Lloyd - Small white violet - Perennial - Forb - OBL

Horticulturists: Balance, diversify, and specialize host plant seeds and transplants; Harmonize regional nurseries by offering complementary and unique local selections; Sustainably propagate local ecotypes. Divest from pesticides!

Agriculturists: Conserve species of squash bees [Peponapis (Peponapis) pruinosa (Say, 1837) and Xenoglossa (Exoxenoglossa) strenua (Cresson, 1878)] by no-till planting species of adventive or native gourds, pumpkins, and squash [Cucurbita L.], including:

  • Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbiteae - Cucurbita foetidissima Kunth - Missouri gourd - Perennial - Forb - FAC
  • Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbiteae - Cucurbita maxima Duchesne - Winter squash - Annual - Forb - FAC
  • Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbiteae - Cucurbita moschata Duchesne - Crookneck squash - Annual - Forb - FAC
  • Cucurbitaceae: Cucurbiteae - Cucurbita pepo L. - Field pumpkin - Annual - Forb - FAC
Biodynamic or organic gourd, pumpkin, and squash seeds or transplants are commonly available from regional sources.

Sources

Acknowledgements

Thanks to host plants for bees. Thanks to bees for host plants. Thanks to sources for seeds and transplants. Thanks to PlantNative for directories. Thanks to USDA-NRCS Plants Database for profiles. Thanks to Sam Droege (USGS Native Bee Inventory and Monitoring Lab) for comments.

References

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