Eliminate Pesticides, Provide Habitats, Restore Biodiversity
Instructor informationJarrod Fowler
Office Hours: Wednesdays
Agricultural Learning Center
911 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA
Time and locationSummer 2015, 6-July to 14-Aug
Tuesdays and Thursdays, 9:00AM to 12:00PM
Agricultural Learning Center
Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA
911 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01002
Required readingsXerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, The (2014). Farming with native beneficial insects: Ecological pest control solutions. North Adams, MA: Storey Pub.
- Fowler, J. (2015). Native shrubs and trees for pollinator conservation in New England. Available online. Accessed 15-Mar 2015.
- Fowler, J. (2015). Sustainable pollinator habitats. Available online. Accessed 15-Mar 2015.
- Fowler, J. (In preparation). Plants for conservation biological control in New England. Available online. Accessed 1-Apr 2015.
- Fowler, J. (In preparation). Pollinator seed bombs. Available online. Accessed 01-Jan 2015.
- Mader, E., & Xerces Society. (2011). Attracting native pollinators: Protecting North America's bees and butterflies: The Xerces Society guide. North Adams, MA: Storey Pub.
- Mader, E., M. Spivak, E. Evans, & Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service. (2010). Managing alternative pollinators: A handbook for beekeepers, growers, and conservationists. Beltsville, MD: Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education. Available online. Accessed 01-Jan 2015.
- United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (2009). Pollinator biology and habitat: New England pollinator handbook. Available online. Accessed 01-Jan 2015.
- United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (2012). Flower-rich foraging habitats for pollinators, Massachusetts Pollinator Activity Sheet. Available online. Accessed 01-Jan 2015.
- United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (2012). Pollinator habitat enhancement plan, Practice activity code (146) (No.). Available online. Accessed 01-Jan 2015.
- United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (2014). Pollinator-Friendly Plants for the Northeast United States. Available online. Accessed 01-Jan 2015.
- Vaughan, M., Mader, E., Guisse, J., Goldenetz-Dollar, J., & Borders, B. (2012). Conservation cover (327) for pollinators, New England installation guide and job sheet. Manuscript in preparation. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, Portland, OR. Available online. Accessed 01-Jan 2015.
- Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, The. (2014). Pollinator habitat assessment form and guide. Available online. Accessed 01-Jan 2015.Students are encouraged to share relevant readings.
Recommended materialsAerial insect net, binoculars, boots or closed-toe shoes, field guides, gloves, hat, pants, pen/pencil and pad, raincoat, snack, sunscreen, water, ...
DescriptionNative beneficial insects are natural enemies that improve crop yield by decreasing pest damage and reducing need for pesticides. Natural enemy populations can be promoted through providing habitats with abundant and diverse resources, such as nectar, pollen, and refuge. Such conservation practices identically support pollinators, provide wildlife habitat, reduce weeds and erosion, and improve aesthetics and water quality, while meeting USDA organic certification biodiversity conservation requirements. Thus, conservation biological control (biocontrol) mutually aids environments, societies, and industries.
JMF096 will provide students with knowledge and skills pertaining to conservation biocontrol, encourage interest and application of native beneficial insect management, and support creative development and use of acquired knowledge and skills for sustainable agriculture. Topics include assessment, design, installation, and maintenance of native beneficial insect habitat and identification and monitoring of natural enemies. Students will collaboratively develop applied projects and gain practical knowledge through a hybrid fieldtrip, lecture, and workshop classroom setting.
GoalsBy the end of the semester, students will be able to:
- Comprehend beneficial insect biology and ecology
- Monitor and identify natural enemy populations
- Use conservation practices to design, install, and maintain habitats
- Attending classes
- Reading all assigned materials and participating in discussions
- Completing quizzes and collaborative class projects
GradesPerformance will be assessed relative to class projects, quizzes, and attendance.
Assessment and evaluation
- Projects: 60%
- Quizzes: 20%
- Attendance: 20%
Late submissionsLate projects and quizzes will not be accepted unless special arrangements are made in advance.
Course calendarClasses 01-12. Date: Topic; Readings; Projects
- 7-July: Pest control with beneficial insects; Preface, Chapter 1, 184-190
- 9-July: Benefits of farming with native beneficial insects; Chapter 2, 181-198
- 14-July: Evaluating native beneficial insect habitat; Chapter 3, 199-207
- 16-July: Designing beneficial insect habitat; Chapter 4, 209-233; Project 1
- 21-July: Native plant field borders; Chapter 5
- 23-July: Insectary strips; Chapter 6
- 28-July: Hedgerows; Chapter 7
- 30-July: Cover crops; Chapter 8; Project 2
- 4-Aug: Conservation buffers; Chapter 9
- 6-Aug: Beetle-banks and other shelters; Chapter 10
- 11-Aug: Reducing pesticide impacts; Chapter 11
- 13-Aug: Long-term habitat management; Chapter 12; Project 3
- Altieri, M. A. (1994). Biodiversity and pest management in agroecosystems. New York: Food Products Press.
- Altieri, M. A., Nicholls, C. I., & Fritz, M. (2005). Manage insects on your farm: A guide to ecological strategies. Beltsville, MD: Sustainable Agriculture Network.
- Barbosa, P. (1998). Conservation biological control. San Diego: Academic Press.
- Beck, T. (2013). Principles of ecological landscape design. Washington: Island Press.
- Blaauw, B. R., & Isaacs, R. (2012). Larger wildflower plantings increase natural enemy density, diversity, and biological control of sentinel prey, without increasing herbivore density. Ecological Entomology, 37, 5, 386-394.
- Blaauw, B. R., & Isaacs, R. (2014). Flower plantings increase wild bee abundance and the pollination services provided to a pollination-dependent crop. Journal of Applied Ecology, 51, 4, 890-898.
- Blaauw, B. R., & Isaacs, R. (2014). Larger patches of diverse floral resources increase insect pollinator density, diversity, and their pollination of native wildflowers. Basic and Applied Ecology, 15, 701-711.
- Cranshaw, W. (2004). Garden insects of North America: The ultimate guide to backyard bugs. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
- Fiedler, A. K., Landis, D. A., & Wratten, S. D. (2008). Maximizing ecosystem services from conservation biological control: The role of habitat management. Biological Control, 45, 2, 254-271.
- Flint, M. L., Dreistadt, S. H., Clark, J. K., & University of California Integrated Pest Management Program. (1998). Natural enemies handbook: The illustrated guide to biological pest control. Oakland, Calif: UC Division of Agriculture and Natural Sciences.
- Garibaldi, L. A., Carvalheiro, L. G., Leonhardt, S. D., Aizen, M. A., Blaauw, B. R., Isaacs, R., Kuhlmann, M., Kleijn, D., Klein, A. M., Kremen, C., Morandin, L., Scheper, J., and Winfree, R. (2014). From research to action: Enhancing crop yield through wild pollinators. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 12, 439-447.
- Gurr, G., Read, D. M. Y., Snyder, W. E., & Wratten, S. D. (2012). Biodiversity and pests: Key issues for sustainable management. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
- Gurr, G., Wratten, S. D., & Altieri, M. A. (2004). Ecological engineering for pest management: Advances in habitat manipulation for arthropods. Ithaca, N.Y: Comstock Pub. Associates.
- Haaland, C., Naisbit, R., & Bersier, L. X. (2011). Sown wildflower strips for insect conservation: A review. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 4, 1, 60-80.
- Holm, H. (2014). Pollinators of native plants: Attract, observe and identify pollinators and beneficial insects with native plants. Minnetonka, MN: Pollination Press.
- Isaacs, R., Tuell, J., Fiedler, A., Gardiner, M., & Landis, D. (2009). Maximizing arthropod-mediated ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes: The role of native plants. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 7, 4, 196-203.
- Kogan, M., & Jepson, P. C. (2007). Perspectives in ecological theory and integrated pest management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Koul, O., Cuperus, G. W., & C.A.B. International. (2007). Ecologically based integrated pest management. Wallingford: CABI.
- Kremen, C., & M'Gonigle, L. K. (2015). Small-scale restoration in intensive agricultural landscapes supports more specialized and less mobile pollinator species. Journal of Applied Ecology doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12418.
- Morandin, L. A., & Kremen, C. (2013). Hedgerow restoration promotes pollinator populations and exports native bees to adjacent fields. Ecological Applications : a Publication of the Ecological Society of America, 23, 4, 829-39.
- Norris, R. F., Caswell-Chen, E. P., & Kogan, M. (2003). Concepts in integrated pest management. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
- Parolin, P., Bresch, C., Bout, A., Ruiz, G., Poncet, C., Desneux, N. (2012). Testing banker plants for predator installation. Acta Horticulturae 927:211-217.
- Parolin, P., Bresch, C., Brun, R., Bout, A., Boll, R., Desneux, N., Poncet, C. (2012). Secondary plants used in biological control: A review. International Journal of Pest Management 58:91-100.
- Parolin, P., Bresch, C., Poncet, C., Desneux, N. (2012). Functional characteristics of secondary plants for increased pest management. International Journal of Pest Management 58:369-377.
- Parolin, P., Bresch, C., Poncet, C., & Desneux, N. (2014). Introducing the term 'Biocontrol Plants' for integrated pest management. Scientia Agricola, 71(1), 77-80.
- Pedigo, L. P., & Rice, M. E. (2009). Entomology and pest management. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson Prentice Hall.
- Pickett, C. H., & Bugg, R. L. (1998). Enhancing biological control: Habitat management to promote natural enemies of agricultural pests. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- Radcliffe, E. B., Hutchison, W. D., & Cancelado, R. E. (2009). Integrated pest management: Concepts, tactics, strategies and case studies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Samways, M. J. (1994). Insect conservation biology. London: Chapman & Hall.
- Samways, M. J. (2005). Insect diversity conservation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Tallamy, D. W. (2007). Bringing nature home: How native plants sustain wildlife in our gardens. Portland, OR: Timber Press.
- Van Driesche, R., & Bellows, T. S. (1996). Biological control. New York: Chapman & Hall.
- Van Driesche, R., Hoddle, M., & Center, T. D. (2008). Control of pests and weeds by natural enemies: An introduction to biological control. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.
- Vaughan, M., Ferruzzi, G., Bagdon, J., Hesketh, E., & Biddinger, D.(2014). Agronomy Technical Note No. 9: Preventing or Mitigating Potential Negative Impacts of Pesticides on Pollinators Using Integrated Pest Management and Other Conservation Practices. Unites States Department of Agriculture. Available online. Accessed 01-Jan 2015.
- Wäckers, F.L., Van Rijn, P.C.J., Bruin, J., eds. (2005). Plant-provided food for carnivorous insects: A protective mutualism and its applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Wratten, S.D., Gillespie, M., Decourtye, A., Mader, E., and Desneux, N. (2012). Pollinator habitat enhancement: Benefits to other ecosystem services. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 159:112-122.
- Wratten, S., Sandhu, H., Cullen, R., & Costanza, R. (2013). Ecosystem services in agricultural and urban landscapes. Chicester: Wiley.
- Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, The. (2015). Conservation biological control resources. Available online. Accessed 01-Jan 2015.
- Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, The. (2015). Pollinator conservation resources. Available online. Accessed 01-Jan 2015.