Jarrod Fowler


Crop-specific farmscaping can prevent crop-specific pests. Plan predator-specific habitats that host pest-specific predators who prey on crop-specific pests. Select from 70 common row crops belonging to 11 plant families. Learn the common economically injurious pests of selected crops, the known natural enemies of those pests of those crops, and the farmscaping practices that host those enemies of those pests of those crops. Divest from pesticides!


  1. Beet - Beta vulgaris L.
  2. Spinach - Spinacia oleracea L.
  3. Leek - Allium ampeloprasum L.
  4. Onion - Allium cepa L.
  5. Garlic - Allium sativum L.
  6. Carrot - Daucus carota L.
  7. Fennel - Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
  8. Parsnip - Pastinaca sativa L.
  9. Asparagus - Asparagus officinalis L.
  10. Lettuce - Lactuca sativa L.
  11. Sunflower - Helianthus annuus L.
  12. Mustard - Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.
  13. Canola - Brassica napus subsp. napus L.
  14. Siberian kale - Brassica napus subsp. pabularia L.
  15. Collard - Brassica oleracea L. Acephala group
  16. Kale - Brassica oleracea L. Acephala group
  17. Cauliflower - Brassica oleracea L. Botrytis group
  18. Cabbage - Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group
  19. Brussels sprout - Brassica oleracea L. Gemmifera group
  20. Kohlrabi - Brassica oleracea L. Gongylodes group
  21. Broccoli - Brassica oleracea L. Italica group
  22. Bok choy - Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis L.
  23. Tatsoi - Brassica rapa subsp. narinosa (L.H.Bailey) Hanelt
  24. Mizuna - Brassica rapa var. niposinica L.
  25. Napa cabbage - Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis L.
  26. Turnip - Brassica rapa var. rapa L.
  27. Rapini - Brassica rapa var. rapifera L.
  28. Arugula - Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.
  29. Radish - Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus (L.) Domin
  30. Daikon - Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus (L.) Bailey
  31. Black radish - Raphanus sativus var. niger (L) J. Kern
  32. Sweet potato - Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.
  33. Watermelon - Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai
  34. Muskmelon - Cucumis melo L.
  35. Cucumber - Cucumis sativus L.
  36. Hubbard squash - Cucurbita maxima Duchesne
  37. Kabocha - Cucurbita maxima Duchesne
  38. Butternut squash - Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir.
  39. Pattypan squash - Cucurbita pepo var. clypeata L.
  40. Gourd - Cucurbita pepo var. ovifera L.
  41. Delicata squash - Cucurbita pepo var. pepo L.
  42. Pumpkin - Cucurbita pepo var. pepo L.
  43. Spaghetti squash - Cucurbita pepo var. pepo L.
  44. Yellow summer squash - Cucurbita pepo var. recticollis L.
  45. Yellow crookneck squash - Cucurbita pepo var. torticollia L.
  46. Acorn squash - Cucurbita pepo var. turbinata L.
  47. Zucchini - Cucurbita pepo var. cylindrica L.
  48. Bottle gourd - Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.
  49. Soybean - Glycine max (L.) Merr.
  50. Sweet pea - Lathyrus odoratus L.
  51. Runner bean - Phaseolus coccineus L.
  52. Lima bean - Phaseolus lunatus L.
  53. Green bean - Phaseolus vulgaris L.
  54. Garden pea - Pisum sativum L.
  55. Snap pea - Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon L.
  56. Snow pea - Pisum sativum var. saccharatum L.
  57. Sweet corn - Zea mays L.
  58. Bell pepper - Capsicum annuum L.
  59. Cayenne pepper - Capsicum annuum L.
  60. Jalapeño - Capsicum annuum L.
  61. Mirasol chili - Capsicum annuum L.
  62. Bonnet pepper - Capsicum chinense Jacq.
  63. Piri piri - Capsicum frutescens L.
  64. Tabasco pepper - Capsicum frutescens L.
  65. Manzano / Locoto / Rocoto - Capsicum pubescens Ruiz & Pav
  66. Tobacco - Nicotiana tabacum L.
  67. Tomatillo - Physalis philadelphica Lam.
  68. Tomato - Solanum lycopersicum L.
  69. Eggplant - Solanum melongena L.
  70. Potato - Solanum tuberosum L.


Sixty-seven species of pests and over 200 species of parasitoids, predators, and pathogens were listed. Please consider prevention of the following eight most recurrent pest species as basic for balanced farmscapes:

  1. True armyworm - Mythimna unipuncta (Haworth, 1809) [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] = 10/11 crop families
  2. Wireworm - Melanotus spp. Eschscholtz 1829 and Limonius spp. Eschscholtz, 1829 [Coleoptera: Elateridae] = 9/11 crop families
  3. Saltmarsh caterpillar - Estigmene acrea (Drury, 1773) [Lepidoptera: Erebidae] = 9/11 crop families
  4. Corn earworm / Tomato fruitworm - Helicoverpa zea (Boddie, 1850) [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] = 9/11 crop families
  5. Tarnished plant bug - Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois, 1818) [Hemiptera: Miridae] = 9/11 crop families
  6. Aster leafhopper - Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Forbes 1885) [Hemiptera: Cicadellidae] = 6/11 crop families
  7. Harlequin bug - Murgantia histrionica (Hahn 1834) [Hemiptera: Pentatomidae] = 5/11 crop families
  8. Variegated cutworm - Peridroma saucia (Hübner, [1808]) [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] = 5/11 crop families

Natural enemies were most often parasitoid wasps, predatory beetles, and predatory bugs. Parasitoid flies, entomopathogens, lacewings, lady beetles, ground beetles, and spiders were found to regularly contribute crucial pest regulation services. Conservation of the most recurrent natural enemies should be of primary concern when planning balanced farmscapes. Farmscape practices that support the most recurrent natural enemies included the creation, augmentation, or conservation of temporary insecaries, semi-permanent cover crops, and permanent plantings such as windbreaks, hedgerows, grasslands, meadows, prairies, pastures, and beetle banks. Farmscape features feed natural enemies nectar, pollen, and alternate prey, while providing nests or overwintering shelters, and protecting natural enemies from habitat disturbances. Increased crop diversity, reduced tillage, and enhanced organic soil amendments and mulches can reduce pest outbreaks and preserve populations of predators and pathogens. For more information, please consult Farming with Native Beneficial Insects: Ecological Pest Control Solutions (The Xerces Society, 2014).


Research funded by United States Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service New Hampshire - Conservation Innovation Grant / Award Number 69-1428-15-06 to the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. Thanks to USDA-NRCS NH state and field office staff, The Xerces Society staff, the NH Association of Conservation Districts, and Plowshare Farm for support. Special thanks to Don Keirstead (USDA-NRCS NH State Resource Conservationist / State Soil Scientist) and Eric Lee-Mäder (The Xerces Society Pollinator Program Co-Director).


Information was compiled from the following United States academic and government sources: Michigan State University, North Carolina State University, Oregon State University, Pennsylvania State University, University of California, University of Florida, University of Maryland, University of Massachusetts, University of Minnesota, University of Missouri, USDA ARS BIIR Delaware, and USDA ARS Horticultural Crops Research Lab. Links are provided to BugGuide.Net:


  1. Judy Gallagher
  2. Katja Schulz
  3. Bob Peterson
  4. Katja Schulz

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