Pollen Specialist Bees of the Eastern United States

Jarrod Fowler & Sam Droege

Introduction

This website compiles all currently known associations among native pollen specialist bees and native host plants from the Eastern United States. First, we define pollen specialist bees and describe our methods. Next, we present a table composed of currently known pollen specialist bees and associated host plants. Please note that our understanding is incomplete; we hope to inspire other researchers to add information to this website. Last, we provide advice about conserving native pollen specialist bees.

Pollen Specialist Bees

Approximately 25% of the ~770 species of bees native to the Eastern United States are pollen specialists. Pollen specialist bees evolved a continuum of facultative or obligate associations with flowering host plants (Cane & Sipes 2006; Hurd et al. 1980; Linsley & MacSwain 1956; Robertson 1925). Oligolectic bees/oligoleges specifically associate with one host plant family [a.k.a. mesolectic bees/mesoleges] or a few related genera or species and monolectic bees/monoleges specifically associate with a single host plant genus or species, while polylectic bees/polyleges generically forage unrelated plants (Cane & Sipes 2006; Robertson 1925).

Pollen specialist associations can mutually benefit both bees and flowers from improved foraging effectiveness and efficiency, pollen digestibility, and pollination rates, but foraging restrictions may create greater susceptibility to harm from pollination/pollinization shortages due to habitat degradation, fragmentation, and loss or phenological mismatch (Minckley et al. 1994; Packer et al. 2005; Rafferty et al. 2014). Therefore, contemporary anthropogenic threats in the Eastern United States potentially imperil native pollen specialist bee species and their endemic, indigenous host plant species with population declines and extinctions through loss of species diversity.

Methods

Records of native pollen specialist bees captured or observed on flowers of host plants were compiled from online sources (Ascher & Pickering 2016, Hilty 2012), peer reviewed articles (Bouseman & La Berge 1978; Brooks & Griswold 1988; Cane et al. 1996; Colla et al. 2012; Deyrup & Deyrup 2011; Deyrup et al. 2002; Donovan 1977; Hall et al. 2016; La Berge 1969, 1971, 1973, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1986, 1989; La Berge & Bouseman 1970; La Berge & Ribble 1972, 1975; Norden et al. 2003; Rightmyer et al. 2011; Robertson 1926, 1928, 1929), technical bulletins (Krombein et al. 1979; La Berge 1967; Mitchell 1960, 1962), and personal communications. If bees and plants are indigenous to the Eastern United States without human intervention, then bees and plants were defined native.

Bee-flower records were compared with state-level plant distributions from the USDA Plants Database (USDA NRCS 2019) and county-level distributions from Go Botany [3.0.3] (New England Wildflower Society 2019). Our study includes only host plant genera that are native and documented as present in at least one county of at least one of the twenty regional states: Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia. Because plant taxonomy has undergone major recent changes, many names have been updated compared to those published in the original literature of bee-flower associations.

Results

Pollen specialist bee species of the Eastern United States are alphabetically tabulated with associated host plant families in Table 1. Six families, 32 genera, and 177 species of pollen specialist bees were listed. The bee family with the most pollen specialists was Andrenidae (91 spp.) and bee genus was Andrena (53 spp.). Of the 177 bee species, 103 were considered "Rare", while 83 spp. were "Uncommon" and 32 spp. were "Common". The months of activity for pollen specialist bees relative to associated host plant flowering phenology were July (93 spp.), June (93 spp.), August (90 spp.), May (89 spp.), September (87 spp.), April (63 spp.), October (48 spp.), March (28 spp.), November (13 spp.), December (3 spp.), January (2. spp.), and February (2. spp.).

Overall, the states most inhabited by pollen specialist bees were: North Carolina (140 spp.), Maryland (112 spp.), Virginia (112 spp.), New Jersey (108 spp.), and Georgia (105 spp.). Of the 177 species of pollen specialist bees, one species was found in all 20 states: Melissodes (Eumelissodes) agilis Cresson, 1878 with Asteraceae, e.g. Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Ratibida Raf., and Solidago L.. The most recurrent host plant family among pollen specialist bee species was Asteraceae (81 bee spp.). The most recurrent host plant genera associations among pollen specialist bee species were Solidago L. (37 spp.), Helianthus L. (36 spp.), Symphyotrichum Nees (32 spp.), Rudbeckia L. (26 spp.), Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot (21 spp.), Grindelia Willd., (19 spp.), Heterotheca Cass. (17 spp.), Coreopsis L. (15 spp.), Salix L. (14 spp.), Bidens L. (12 spp.), Pityopsis Nutt. (12 spp.), and Vaccinium L. (12 spp.).

Tables

Table 1. Pollen specialist bee families (n = 6), genera (n = 32), and species (n = 177) with taxonomic authorities, distributions according to records from 20 states (AL, CT, DE, FL, GA, LA, MA, MD, ME, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, SC, VA, VT, and WV), regional conservation status (Common, Uncommon, or Rare), phenology according to records from 12 months (January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, and December), and host plant families and genera. Bee families and member genera and species are presented in ascending alphabetical order. Families, subfamilies, tribes, and subtribes link to BugGuide profiles. Species link to Discover Life species profiles. Month headings link to month-specific lists. Host plants link to USDA PLANTS Database genera profiles: view 'Subordinate Taxa' tabs for regional host plant species. Arthropoda: Hexapoda: Insecta: Hymenoptera: Aculeata: Anthophila (Apoidea):
Family: Subfamily: Tribe: SubtribeGenus (Subgenus) speciesAuthorityRecorded statesStatusJFMAMJJASONDHost plant Family, Genera
Andrenidae: AndreninaeAndrena (Callandrena s.l.) acceptaViereck, 1916FL-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VARare.......XXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) aliciaeRobertson, 1891CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVRare......XXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Bidens L., Helianthus L., Rudbeckia L., Silphium L., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Parandrena) andrenoides(Cresson, 1878)AL-FL-GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VARare...XX.......Salix L.
Andrena (Scaphandrena) arabisRobertson, 1897CT-DE-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommon..XXX.......Arabis L., Cardamine L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) asterisRobertson, 1891AL-CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommon.......XX...Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) asteroidesMitchell, 1960AL-GA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-PA-SC-VARare........XXX.Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Thysandrena) bisalicisViereck, 1908AL-CT-DE-GA-LA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommon-Uncommon..XXXXX.....Salix L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) braccataViereck, 1907CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VACommon-Rare.......XXX..Euthamia Nutt. ex Cass., Solidago L.
Andrena (Conandrena) bradleyiViereck, 1907CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VACommon-Uncommon..XXXX......Ericaceae, e.g. Gaylussacia Kunth, Vaccinium L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) canadensisDalla Torre, 1896CT-MA-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-RI-VA-VTCommon-Uncommon.......XX...Asteraceae, e.g. Eurybia (Cass.) Cass., Grindelia Willd., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Andrena) carolinaViereck, 1909AL-GA-CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVCommon-Uncommon...XXXX.....Ericaceae, e.g. Gaylussacia Kunth, Vaccinium L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) chromotrichaCockerell, 1899NC-NY-PA-WVRare......XXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Andrena) clarkella(Kirby, 1802)CT-MA-ME-NH-NY-RI-VT-WVCommon-Rare...XXXX.....Salix L.
Andrena (Andrena) cornelliViereck, 1907CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VAUncommon....XXX.....Rhododendron L.
Andrena (Ptilandrena) distansProvancher, 1888CT-GA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VACommon-Uncommon...XXX......Geranium L.
Andrena (Callandrena) duplicataMitchell, 1960CT-NC-NJ-NYRare.......XXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Bidens L.
Andrena (Ptilandrena) erigeniaeRobertson, 1891CT-DE-MA-MD-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVCommon..XXX.......Claytonia L.
Andrena (Tylandrena) erythrogaster(Ashmead, 1890)CT-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommon-Uncommon...XXXX.....Salix L.
Andrena (Leucandrena) erythroniiRobertson, 1891CT-FL-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommon...XXX......Erythronium L.
Andrena (Gonandrena) fragilisSmith, 1853CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-WVCommon....XXX.....Cornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Andrena) frigidaSmith, 1853CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VACommon-Uncommon..XXXX......Salix L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) fulvipennisSmith, 1853AL-DE-FL-GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-SCRare........XX..Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) gardineriCockerell, 1906AL-FL-GA-MD-MS-NC-SC-VA-WVUncommon...XXX......Packera Á. Löve & D. Löve
Andrena (Euandrena) geraniiRobertson, 1891FL-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVUncommon...XXXX.....Hydrophyllum L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) helianthiRobertson, 1891CT-MA-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VAUncommon-Rare......XXX...Helianthus L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) hirticinctaProvancher, 1888CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommon.......XXX..Euthamia Nutt ex. Cass., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Micrandrena) illinoiensisRobertson, 1891MD-NY-VARare...XXX......Salix L.
Andrena (Gonandrena) integraSmith, 1853CT-MA-ME-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VTUncommon....XXXXX...Cornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Scrapteropsis) kalmiaeAtwood, 1934CT-MA-ME-NHUncommon...XXXX.....Ericaceae, e.g. Kalmia L., Lyonia Nutt., Vaccinium L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) krigianaRobertson, 1901AL-CT-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVUncommon..XXXX......Cichorieae, e.g. Hieracium L., Krigia Schreb.
Andrena (Micrandrena) lamellitergaRibble, 1968MD-PA-VARare...XX.......Phacelia Juss.
Andrena (Andrena) macoupinensisRobertson, 1900AL-FL-GA-MD-MS-NC-PA-SC-VA-WVUncommon..XXXX......Salix L.
Andrena (Trachandrena) mariaeRobertson, 1891GA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-RI-VA-WVUncommon..XXX.......Salix L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) melanochroaCockerell, 1898CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-VA-WVUncommon..XXXXX.....Rosaceae, e.g. Fragaria L., Potentilla L., Rubus L.
Andrena (Parandrena) nidaMitchell, 1960AL-FL-GA-MD-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-RI-VA-WVUncommon..XXX.......Salix L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) nigraeRobertson, 1905AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVUncommon...XXX......Salix L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) nubeculaSmith, 1853CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommon-Uncommon.......XXX..Euthamia Nutt. ex Cass., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) parnassiae*Cockerell, 1902MA-NH-VTRare.......XX...Parnassia L.
Andrena (Gonandrena) perisimulataViereck, 1917CT-MA-ME-NH-NYUncommon....XXX.....Cornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Euandrena) phaceliaeMitchell, 1960MD-NC-VA-WVRare...XX.......Phacelia Juss.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) placataMitchell, 1960CT-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommon......XXXX..Astereae, e.g. Eurybia (Cass.) Cass., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Gonandrena) platypariaRobertson, 1895CT-DE-FL-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VAUncommon.....XX.....Cornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Euandrena) polemoniiRobertson, 1891DE-WVRare....X.......Polemonium L.
Andrena (Trachandrena) rehniViereck, 1907CT, DE, GA, MA, MD, NC, NJ, NY, PA, VARare...XXX......Castanea Mill.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) rudbeckiaeRobertson, 1891DE-FL-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-PARare....XXXX....Ratibida Raf., Rudbeckia L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) salictariaRobertson, 1905CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommon-Rare..XXX.......Salix L.
Andrena (Trachandrena) sigmundiCockerell, 1902CT-GA-MA-ME-NC-NH-RI-VTCommon..XXXX......Salix L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) simplexSmith, 1853AL-CT-DE-GA-LA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVCommon......XXXXX.Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Derandrena) uvulariae**Mitchell, 1960DE-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVRare....X.......Uvularia L.
Andrena (Iomelissa) violaeRobertson, 1891CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVCommon-Uncommon..XX........Viola L.
Andrena (Parandrena) wellesleyanaRobertson, 1897CT-MA-RIUncommon...XX.......Salix L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) ziziaeRobertson, 1891CT-GA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVCommon-Uncommon...XXX......Zizia W.D.J. Koch [Taenidia (Torr. & A. Gray) Drude?, Thaspium Nutt.?]
Andrena (Derandrena) ziziaeformisCockerell, 1908CT-DE-GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommon-Rare...XX.......Potentilla L., Waldsteinia Willd.
Andrenidae: Panurginae: CalliopsiniCalliopsis (Calliopsima) coloradensisCresson, 1878AL-GA-LA-MS-NCUncommon-Rare.....XXXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Grindelia Willd., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Calliopsis (Verbenapis) nebraskensis***Crawford, 1902CT-NJRare......XX....Verbena L.
Andrenidae: Panurginae: Panurgini: PanurginiaPanurginus atramontensisCrawford, 1926GA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-VARare...XXX......Vaccinium (Polycodium) L.
Panurginus potentillae(Crawford, 1916)CT-GA-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VAUncommon-Rare..XXX.......Potentilla L.
Andrenidae: Panurginae: Panurgini: PerditinaPerdita (Cockerellia) albipennisCresson, 1868MSRare.....XXXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Heterotheca Cass., Rudbeckia L., Symphyotrichum Nees, Verbesina L.
Perdita (Cockerellia) bequaertiViereck, 1917AL-FL-GA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-SCUncommon-Rare.....XXXX...Asteraceae e.g. Bidens L., Balduina Nutt., Helianthus L. [Physalis L.?]
Perdita (Hexaperdita) bishoppiCockerell, 1906AL-FL-GA-DE-MD-MS-NC-NJ-SCRare......XXX...Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) boltoniae(Robertson, 1902)DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VARare......XXXX..Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Perdita (Perdita) consobrinaTimberlake, 1928AL-FL-NC-SC-VARare........XX..Asteraceae, e.g. Balduina Nutt., Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt., Solidago L.
Perdita (Perdita) discretaTimberlake, 1954NC-SCRare........XX..Asteraceae: Astereae e.g. Heterotheca Cass.
Perdita (Alloperdita) floridensisTimberlake, 1928FL-NCRare...XX.......Ilex L.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) foveataTimberlake, 1956FLRare....XX......Asteraceae, e.g. Coreopsis L.
Perdita (Perdita) georgicaTimberlake, 1928FL-GA-MS-NCUncommon.......XXX..Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Perdita (Perdita) gerardiaeCrawford, 1932FL-MD-MS-NC-NJ-SCRare........XX..Agalinis Raf.
Perdita (Perdita) gerhardiViereck, 1904FL-MD-NC-NJ-VA-WVRare...XXXXX....Monarda L.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) graenicheri Timberlake, 1947FLRare........XX..Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Perdita (Perdita) halictoidesSmith, 1853FL-GA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-VTUncommon-Rare...XXXXXX...Physalis L.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) ignotaCockerell, 1896LAUncommon-Rare.....XXX....Asteraceae: Astereae e.g. Grindelia Willd., Heterotheca Cass., Solidago L.
Perdita (Perdita) maculigeraCockerell, 1896NYRare...XXX......Salix L.
Perdita (Alloperdita) novaeangliaeViereck, 1907FL-CT-MA-NC-RI-SCUncommon....XXX.....Lyonia Nutt.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) nubilaTimberlake, 1958FLRare....X.......Asteraceae, e.g. Erigeron L.
Perdita (Alloperdita) obscurataCresson, 1878AL-FL-GA-MS-NCUncommon-Rare....X.......Diospyros L., Vaccinium L.
Perdita (Perdita) octomaculata(Say, 1824)AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommon-Uncommon......XXXX..Astereae, e.g. Baccharis L., Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Euthamia Nutt. ex Cass., Grindelia Willd., Pityopsis Nutt., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Perdita (Perdita) polygonellaeTimberlake, 1954AL-FL-NCRare........XX..Polygonella Michx.
Perdita (Perdita) swenkiCrawford, 1915NJ-NYRare......XXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Heterotheca Cass., Solidago L.
Andrenidae: Panurginae: ProtandreniniProtandrena abdominalis(Cresson, 1878)GA-MD-NC-NJ-PA-VA-WVRare....XXXXX...Monarda L.
Andrenidae: Panurginae: ProtandreniniPseudopanurgus aestivalis(Provancher, 1882)CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-VTRare.......XX...Astereae, e.g. Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Erigeron L., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Pseudopanurgus albitarsis(Cresson, 1872)GA-NC-VARare....XXXXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Coreopsis L., Helianthus L., Ratibida Raf., Rudbeckia L.
Pseudopanurgus andrenoides(Smith, 1853)CT-MA-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-VA-WVUncommon.......XX...Asteraceae, e.g. Eurybia (Cass.) Cass., Rudbeckia L., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Pseudopanurgus compositarum (Robertson, 1893)CT-DE-GA-LA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommon........XX..Asteraceae, e.g. Bidens L., Rudbeckia L., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Pseudopanurgus illinoiensis(Cresson, 1878)FL-LA-MD-NC-VARare....X.......Asteraceae, e.g. Erigeron L., Heterotheca Cass.
Pseudopanurgus labrosiformis(Robertson, 1898)GA-MD-NC-VA-WVRare.......XXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Bidens L., Coreopsis L., Helianthus L., Rudbeckia L., Silphium L., Solidago L.
Pseudopanurgus labrosus(Robertson, 1895)CT-NC-VA-WVUncommon.......XX...Asteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L., Rudbeckia L.
Pseudopanurgus passifloraeRobertson, 1897MS-NC-VARare...XXXXXX...Passiflora L.
Pseudopanurgus pauper(Cresson, 1878)CT-FL-GA-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVRare.....XXX....Ceanothus L.
Pseudopanurgus rugosus(Robertson, 1895)AL-FL-GA-MD-MS-NC-SC-VAUncommon-Rare.......XX...Asteraceae, e.g. Bidens L., Helianthus L., Rudbeckia L., Silphium L.
Pseudopanurgus solidaginis(Robertson, 1893)AL-MD-MS-NCUncommon.......XXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Bidens L., Coreopsis L., Helianthus L., Pityopsis Nutt., Rudbeckia L., Solidago L.
Pseudopanurgus virginicus(Cockerell, 1907)AL-GA-MD-NC-VA-WVRare....XX......Ceanothus L., Houstonia L.
Apidae: Apinae: AnthophoriniHabropoda laboriosa(Fabricius, 1804)AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VACommon-UncommonXXXXX.....XXCercis L., Vaccinium L.
Apidae: Apinae: EmphoriniDiadasia (Coquillettapis) afflica****(Cresson, 1878)LA-MSRare..XXXX......Malvaceae, e.g. Callirhoe Nutt.
Apidae: Apinae: EmphoriniMelitoma taurea(Say, 1837)AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-PA-SC-VA-WVCommon.....XXXX...Calystegia R. Br., Ipomoea L.
Apidae: Apinae: EmphoriniPtilothrix bombiformis(Cresson, 1878)AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVCommon-Uncommon.....XXX....Hibiscus L.
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniCemolobus ipomoeae(Robertson, 1891)AL-GA-MD-NC-PA-VA-WVRare.....XX.....Calystegia R. Br., Ipomoea L.
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniFlorilegus (Florilegus) condignus(Cresson, 1878)AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-SC-VAUncommon-Rare...XXXXX....Pontederia L.
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniMelissodes (Eumelissodes) agilisCresson, 1878AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommon-Uncommon....XXXXXXX.Asteraceae, e.g. Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Ratibida Raf., Solidago L.
Melissodes (Apomelissodes) apicatusLovell and Cockerell, 1906CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NYUncommon-Rare..XXXXX.....Pontederia L.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) boltoniaeRobertson, 1905AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NY-PA-SC-VAUncommon......XXXXX.Asteraceae, e.g. Bidens L., Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Cirsium Mill., Coreopsis L., Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Heterotheca Cass., Ratibida Raf., Rudbeckia L., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees, Vernonia Schreb.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) denticulatusSmith, 1854AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVCommon-Uncommon....XXXXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Vernonia Schreb.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) dentiventrisSmith, 1854AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VAUncommon......XXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Bidens L., Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Coreopsis L., Helianthus L., Pityopsis Nutt., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees, Vernonia Schreb.
Melissodes (Heliomelissodes) desponsusSmith, 1854AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommon.....XXXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Cirsium Mill.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) druriellus(Kirby, 1802)AL-CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVUncommon....XXXXXXX.Asteraceae, e.g. Euthamia Nutt. ex Cass., Helianthus L., Rudbeckia L., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees, Vernonia Schreb.
Melissodes (Apomelissodes) fimbriatusCresson, 1878MS-NC-VARare...XXXX.....Oenothera L.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) fumosusLaBerge, 1961MD-MS-NC-SC-VARare.....XXXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Pityopsis Nutt., Solidago L.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) illatusLovell and Cockerell, 1906ME-NC-NY-WVUncommon......XXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L., Rudbeckia L., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) manipularisSmith, 1854FL-GA-NC-SCRare.......XX...Asteraceae, e.g. Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot
Melissodes (Apomelissodes) mitchelliLaBerge, 1956FL-GA-NC-SCRare...XX.......Opuntia Mill.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) niveusRobertson, 1895AL-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-VAUncommon......XXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Bidens L., Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Helianthus L., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees, Vernonia Schreb.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) pilleatusLaBerge, 1961NCRare........XX..Asteraceae, e.g. Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Symphyotrichum Nees
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) subillatusLaBerge, 1961CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommon.....XXXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Coreopsis L., Cirsium Mill., Rudbeckia L., Symphyotrichum Nees, Vernonia Schreb.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) tinctusLaBerge, 1961FL-GA-LA-MS-NC-SCRare.......XXXXXAsteraceae, e.g. Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Helianthus L., Symphyotrichum Nees, Verbesina L.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) trinodisRobertson, 1901CT-DE-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NJ-NY-RI-VA-VTUncommon......XXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L., Ratibida Raf., Rudbeckia L.
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniPeponapis (Peponapis) pruinosa(Say, 1837)CT-DE-GA-LA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WV Common.....XXXX...Cucurbita L.
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniSvastra (Epimelissodes) aegis(LaBerge, 1956)AL-FL-GA-LA-MS-NC-SCUncommon......XXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Balduina Nutt., Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Helenium L., Helianthus L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Svastra (Anthedonia) compta(Cresson, 1878)GA-MD-NC-NJ-PAUncommon.....XXXXXX.Oenothera L.
Svastra (Epimelissodes) obliqua(Say, 1837)AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VAUncommon.....XXXXXX.Asteraceae, e.g. Cirsium Mill., Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Rudbeckia L., Vernonia Schreb.
Svastra (Epimelissodes) petulca(Cresson, 1878)AL-FL-GA-LA-MS-NC-NJ-SCUncommon-Rare...XXXXXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Coreopsis L., Helenium L., Helianthus L., Pyrrhopappus DC., Ratibida Raf., Rudbeckia L., Verbesina L.
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniXenoglossa (Eoxenoglossa) kansensisCockerell, 1905FL-NC-SCRare....XXXX....Cucurbita L., Ipomoea L.
Xenoglossa (Eoxenoglossa) strenua(Cresson, 1878)AL-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-SC-VAUncommon....XXXX....Cucurbita L.
Apidae: Apinae: ExomalopsiniAnthophorula (Anthophorisca) asteris(Mitchell, 1962)GA-LA-MSRare.......XX...Symphyotrichum Nees
Anthophorula (Anthophorisca) micheneriTimberlake, 1948MS-VARare........XX..Agalinis Raf.
ColletidaeColletes aestivalisPatton, 1879DE-GA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NY-VARare....XXX.....Heuchera L. [Boykinia Nutt., Mitella L., Tiarella L.?]
Colletes americanusCresson, 1868CT-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVCommon-Uncommon....XXXXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Euthamia Nutt. ex Cass., Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Pityopsis Nutt., Rudbeckia L., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Colletes banksiSwenk, 1908CT-FL-GA-LA-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VARare...XXXX.....Ilex L.
Colletes brevicornisRobertson, 1897FL-GA-LA-MD-NC-NJ-SC-VA-WVUncommon..XXXX......Campanula L., Triodanis Raf. ex Greene
Colletes brimleyiMitchell, 1951FL-GA-NC-NJ-SCRare..XXXX......Ilex L.
Colletes ciliatusPatton, 1879MD-VARare........XX..Cuscuta L.
Colletes compactusCresson, 1868CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommon.....XXXXXX.Asteraceae, e.g. Bidens L., Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Rudbeckia L., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Colletes francesaeDeyrup & Deyrup, 2011FL Rare.....X......Sideroxylon L.
Colletes howardiSwenk, 1925FL-NC Rare........XX..Fabaceae, e.g. Dalea L.
Colletes latitarsisRobertson, 1891AL-CT-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVUncommon..XXXXXXX...Physalis L.
Colletes productusRobertson, 1891AL-CT-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-SC-VA-WVUncommon-Rare...XXXX.....Lyonia Nutt., Vaccinium L., e.g. Vaccinium arboreum Marshall
Colletes simulansCresson, 1868AL-CT-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommon....XXXXXXX.Euthamia Nutt. ex Cass., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Colletes solidaginisSwenk, 1906CT-MA-MD-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-VA-VTUncommon-Rare......XXX...Solidago L.
Colletes speculiferusCockerell, 1927CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-RI-SC-VAUncommon......XXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Euthamia Nutt ex. Cass., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Colletes thysanellaeMitchell, 1951AL-FL-GA-NC-SC-VARare........XXX.Asteraceae, e.g. Baccharis L., Balduina Nutt., Heterotheca Cass., Solidago L.
Colletes ultravalidusHall & Ascher, 2016FLRareXXX........XEricaceae, e.g. Vaccinium (Polycodium) L., Vaccinium L.
Colletes validusCresson, 1868CT-DE-GA-MA-ME-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VAUncommon..XXXXX.....Ericaceae, e.g. Vaccinium L.
Colletes willistoniRobertson, 1891FL-GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VARare...XXXXXX...Physalis L.
Halictidae: Halictinae: HalictiniLasioglossum (Hemihalictus) lustrans(Cockerell, 1897)AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-SC-VARare...XXXXXX...Pyrrhopappus DC.
Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) oenotherae(Stevens, 1920)CT-GA-LA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommon.....XXX....Oenothera L.
Lasioglossum (Hemihalictus) pectinatum(Robertson, 1890)CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVRare.....XXX....Physalis L.
Halictidae: NomiinaeDieunomia (Dieunomia) heteropoda(Say, 1824)AL-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-SC-VAUncommon-Rare......XXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Bidens L., Coreopsis L., Helianthus L., Silphium L., Solidago L., Verbesina L.
Dieunomia (Epinomia) nevadensis(Cresson, 1874)AL-FL-LA-MD-MS-NCUncommon-Rare.......XX...Asteraceae, e.g. Baccharis L., Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Halictidae: RophitinaeDufourea monardae(Viereck, 1924)CT-MA-NJ-NYRare......XX....Monarda L.
Dufourea novaeangliae(Robertson, 1897)CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VTCommon-Rare....XXX.....Pontederia L.
Megachilidae: AnthidiiniDianthidium (Dianthidium) curvatum(Smith, 1854)AL-FL-GA-MS-NC-SCUncommon...XXXXXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Coreopsis L., Grindelia Willd., Helenium L., Helianthus L.
Dianthidium (Dianthidium) simile(Cresson, 1864)CT-MA-ME-NJ-NYRare......XXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Megachilidae: AnthidiiniParanthidium (Paranthidium) jugatorium(Say, 1824)AL-GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VA-WVUncommon-Rare......XXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Erigeron L., Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Heterotheca Cass., Rudbeckia L., Silphium L., Verbesina L.
Megachilidae: AnthidiiniTrachusa (Heteranthidium) dorsalis(Lepeletier, 1841)AL-GA-MS-NC-NJRare.......XX...Strophostyles Elliot
Trachusa (Heteranthidium) zebrata(Cresson, 1872)LA-MSRare.......XXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L.
Megachilidae: LithurginaeLithurgopsis gibbosa(Smith, 1853)AL-FL-GA-NC-SCUncommon-Rare...XX.......Opuntia Mill.
Megachilidae: MegachiliniMegachile (Megachiloides) brimleyiMitchell, 1926FL-GA-NCUncommon.....XXXX...Galactia P. Br.
Megachile (Sayapis) inimicaCresson, 1872AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVUncommon......XXXXX.Asteraceae, e.g. Baccharis L., Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Cirsium Mill., Coreopsis L., Erigeron L., Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Rudbeckia L., Silphium L., Solidago L., Verbesina L., Vernonia Schreb.
Megachile (Megachiloides) integraCresson, 1878AL-FL-GA-MD-NC-NJ-SCRare..XXXXXXX...Galactia P. Br., Strophostyles Elliot
Megachile (Megachiloides) oenotherae(Mitchell, 1924)GA-LA-NC-NJRare...XXX......Oenothera L.
Megachile (Argyropile) parallelaSmith, 1853FL-GA-LA-MS-NC-VARare.....XXXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Baccharis L., Coreopsis L., Grindelia Willd., Helenium L., Helianthus L., Heterotheca Cass., Rudbeckia L., Symphyotrichum Nees, Verbesina L.
Megachile (Sayapis) pugnataSay, 1837CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVUncommon.....XXXX...Asteraceae, e.g. Cirsium Mill., Coreopsis L., Erigeron L., Grindelia Willd., Helianthus L., Rudbeckia L.
Megachile (Melanosarus) xylocopoidesSmith, 1853AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-SC-VAUncommon..XXXXXXXX..Asteraceae, e.g. Coreopsis L., Erigeron L., Helianthus L., Rudbeckia L., Solidago L., Vernonia Schreb.
Megachilidae: OsmiiniAshmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) bucconis(Say, 1837)GA-LA-NCRare....XXXX....Asteraceae, e.g. Coreopsis L., Erigeron L., Grindelia Willd., Heterotheca Cass., Helianthus L., Rudbeckia L., Solidago L., Verbesina L.
Megachilidae: OsmiiniHoplitis (Robertsonella) micheneriMitchell, 1962FL-GA-NC-SCUncommon-Rare...XX.......Amorpha L.
Hoplitis (Robertsonella) simplex(Cresson, 1864)DE-MD-NC-NJ-SC-VA-WVRare..XXX.......Nemophila Nutt., Phacelia Juss.
Megachilidae: OsmiiniOsmia (Melanosmia) calaminthaeRightmyer, Deyrup, Ascher, & Griswold, 2011FLRare...X........Clinopodium Mill.
Osmia (Helicosmia) chalybeaSmith, 1853AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-VA-WVRare..XXX.......Cirsium Mill.
Osmia (Melanosmia) distinctaCresson, 1864CT-DE-FL-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVUncommon..XXXXX.....Penstemon Schmidel
Osmia (Helicosmia) texanaCresson, 1872MD-VA-WVRare..XXXXXX....Cirsium Mill.
Osmia (Melanosmia) virgaSandhouse, 1939CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVUncommon...XXX......Vaccinium L.
Melittidae: Dasypodainae: HesperapiniHesperapis (Carinapis) orariaSnelling & Stage, 1997AL-FL-MSRare.........X..Asteraceae, e.g. Balduina Nutt.
Melittidae: Melittinae: MacropidiniMacropis (Macropis) ciliataPatton, 1880CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VAUncommon-Rare....XXXX....Lysimachia L.
Macropis (Macropis) nuda(Provancher, 1882)CT-MA-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VT-WVUncommon-Rare.....XXXX...Lysimachia L.
Macropis (Macropis) patellataPatton, 1880CT-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VTRare.....XXX....Lysimachia L.
Macropis (Macropis) steironematisRobertson, 1891GA-NC-VARare.....XX.....Lysimachia L.
Melittidae: Melittinae: MelittiniMelitta (Cilissa) americana(Smith, 1853)AL-CT-FL-GA-LA-MA-MS-NC-NJ-NYUncommon-Rare.....XX.....Vaccinium L., e.g. Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton
Melitta (Cilissa) eickwortiSnelling & Stage, 1995GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-WVRare....XX......Vaccinium (Polycodium) L.
Melitta (Cilissa) melittoides(Viereck, 1909)CT-GA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-PA-SC-VARare.....XX.....Lyonia Nutt.

* The first record for Massachusetts was from collections made and identified by M. Veit.
** Subgeneric placement and state records based in part on unpublished work by M. Arduser, J. S. Ascher, P. Bernhardt, S. Droege, R. Meier, and S.-X. Ren.
*** The first record for New England was from collections made by D. Wagner et al. and identified by J. S. Ascher.
**** The first record for Missisippi was from colloections made by R. Sudan and identified by J. Neff.

Recommendations

Pollinator habitat conservation and enhancement projects should prioritize practices that foster diverse communities of native pollen specialist bees and associated host plants. Site-specific practices including beetle banks, companion plants, cover crops, field borders, hedgerows, insectaries, meadows, pastures, prairies, and riparian buffers should be composed primarily of host plants for pollen specialist bees and secondarily of pollen and nectar plants for generalist pollinators.

Conservation practices can protect native pollen specialist bees from population declines and extinctions, while identically supporting other managed and wild beneficial insects, providing wildlife habitat, reducing weeds and erosion, improving soil health and water quality, regulating pests, offering harvestable products, and bettering aesthetics (Garibaldi et al. 2014; Kleijn et al. 2015; Wratten et al. 2012). Therefore, habitat conservation and enhancement for native pollen specialist bees works synergistically to promote environmental, social, and economic regenerability and sustainability in the Eastern United States (Fowler 2016a, 2016b).

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Michael S. Arduser (Missouri Department of Conservation), John S. Ascher (National University of Singapore), Daniel P. Cariveau (University of Minnesota), Mark A. Deyrup (Archbold Biological Station), Charles S. Eiseman (freelance naturalist), Jason Gibbs (Michigan State University), Glen Hall (University of Florida), John L. Neff (Central Texas Melittological Institute), Robert P. Jean (Environmental Solutions & Innovations, Inc), T'ai H. Roulston (University of Virginia), Kimberly A. Stoner (Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station), and Michael Veit (freelance naturalist) for comments and records. We greatly appreciate the efforts of the BugGuide, Discover Life, Go Botany, and USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database groups to compile distribution and natural history information for bees and plants.

References

Records or requests? Email: j@jarrodfowler.com

Photos from The USGS Bee Inventory and Monitoring Lab

Visit: Host Plants for Pollen Specialist Bees of the Eastern United States

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