Pollen Specialist Bees of the Eastern United States

Jarrod Fowler & Sam Droege

Comments or questions? Email: j@jarrodfowler.com

Introduction

Approximately 25% of the ~770 species of bees native to the Eastern United States are pollen specialists. Pollen specialist bees evolved a continuum of facultative or obligate associations with flowering host plants (Cane & Sipes 2006; Hurd et al. 1980; Linsley & MacSwain 1956; Robertson 1925). Oligoleges generally associate with one host plant family [mesoleges] or a few related genera or species and monoleges specifically associate with a single host plant genus or species, while polyleges forage unrelated plants (Cane & Sipes 2006; Robertson 1925). Such special associations can benefit both bee and flower from improved foraging effectiveness and efficiency, pollen digestibility, and pollination rates, but foraging restrictions may create greater susceptibility to harm from pollen shortages due to habitat degradation, fragmentation, and loss or phenological mismatch (Minckley et al. 1994; Rafferty et al. 2014). Therefore, contemporary anthropogenic threats in the Eastern United States potentially imperil native specialist bee species and their endemic, indigenous host plant species with population declines and extinctions through loss of species diversity.

Methods

Records of native specialist bees captured or observed on flowers of host plants were compiled from online sources (Ascher & Pickering 2016, Hilty 2012), peer reviewed articles (Bouseman & La Berge 1978; Brooks & Griswold 1988; Colla et al. 2012; Deyrup & Deyrup 2011; Deyrup et al. 2002; Hall et al. 2016; La Berge 1969, 1971, 1973, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1986, 1989; La Berge & Bouseman 1970; La Berge & Ribble 1972, 1975; Norden et al. 2003; Rightmyer et al. 2011; Robertson 1926, 1928, 1929), technical bulletins (Krombein et al. 1979; La Berge 1967; Mitchell 1960, 1962), and personal communications. If bees and plants are indigenous to the Eastern United States without human intervention, then bees and plants were defined native. Bee-flowers were compared with state-level plant distributions from the USDA Plants Database (USDA NRCS 2019) and county-level distributions from Go Botany [3.0.3] (New England Wildflower Society 2019). Our study includes only host plant genera that are native and documented as present in at least one county of at least one of the twentu regional states: Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia. Because plant taxonomy has undergone major recent changes, many names have been updated compared to those published in the original literature of bee-flower associations.

Results

Pollen specialist bee species of the Eastern United States are alphabetically tabulated with associated host plant families in Table 1. Six families, 32 genera, and 174 species of specialist bees were listed. The bee family with the most specialists was Andrenidae (89 spp.) and bee genus was Andrena (51 spp.). Of the 174 bee species, 100 were considered "Rare", while 83 spp. were "Uncommon" and 32 spp. were "Common". Generally, the seasons of peak-activity for specialist bees relative to associated host plant flowering phenology were Summer (70 spp.), Spring (52 spp.), and Fall (52 spp.). Overall, the states most inhabited by specialist bees were: North Carolina (139 spp.), Maryland (110 spp.), Virginia (109 spp.), New Jersey (107 spp.), and Georgia (104 spp.). Of the 174 species of specialist bees, one species was found in all 20 states: Melissodes agilis Cresson, 1878 with Helianthus. The most recurrent host plant family amongst specialist bee species was Asteraceae L. (81 bee spp.). The most recurrent host plant genera associations amongst specialist bee species were Salix L. (14 spp.), Solidago L. (12 spp.), Vaccinium L. (11 spp.), Helianthus L. (9 spp.), and Symphyotrichum Nees (9 spp.).

Tables

Table 1. Pollen specialist bee families (n = 6), genera (n = 32), and species (n = 174) with taxonomic authorities, recorded states according to records from 20 states (AL, CT, DE, FL, GA, LA, MA, MD, ME, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, SC, VA, VT, and WV), regional conservation status (Common, Uncommon, or Rare), seasons of peak activity (Spring, Summer, or Fall), and host plant families and genera. Bee families and member genera and species are presented in ascending alphabetical order. Families, subfamilies, tribes, and subtribes link to BugGuide profiles. Species link to Discover Life species profiles. Host plant genera link to USDA PLANTS Database genera profiles: view 'Subordinate Taxa' tabs for regional host plant species. Arthropoda: Hexapoda: Insecta: Hymenoptera: Aculeata: Anthophila (Apoidea):
Family: Subfamily: Tribe: SubtribeGenus (Subgenus) speciesAuthorityRecorded statesStatusSeasonHost plant Genera
Andrenidae: AndreninaeAndrena (Callandrena s.l.) acceptaViereck, 1916FL-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VARareFallAsteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) aliciaeRobertson, 1891CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVRareSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L.
Andrena (Parandrena) andrenoides(Cresson, 1878)AL-FL-GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VARareSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Scaphandrena) arabisRobertson, 1897CT-DE-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommonSpringArabis L., Cardamine L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) asterisRobertson, 1891AL-CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommonFallSolidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) asteroidesMitchell, 1960AL-GA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-PA-SC-VARareFallSymphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Thysandrena) bisalicisViereck, 1908AL-CT-DE-GA-LA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommon-UncommonSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) braccataViereck, 1907CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VACommon-RareFallEuthamia Nutt. ex Cass., Solidago L.
Andrena (Conandrena) bradleyiViereck, 1907CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VACommon-UncommonSpringEricaceae, e.g. Gaylussacia Kunth, Vaccinium L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) canadensisDalla Torre, 1896CT-MA-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-RI-VA-VTCommon-UncommonFallAstereae, e.g. Solidago L.
Andrena (Andrena) carolinaViereck, 1909AL-GA-CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVCommon-UncommonSpringEricaceae, e.g. Vaccinium L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) chromotrichaCockerell, 1899NC-NY-PA-WVRareFallAsteraceae
Andrena (Andrena) clarkella(Kirby, 1802)CT-MA-ME-NH-NY-RI-VT-WVCommon-RareSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Andrena) cornelliViereck, 1907CT-GA-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VAUncommonSpringRhododendron L.
Andrena (Ptilandrena) distansProvancher, 1888CT-GA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VACommon-UncommonSpringGeranium L.
Andrena (Callandrena) duplicataMitchell, 1960CT-NC-NJ-NYRareFallAsteraceae
Andrena (Ptilandrena) erigeniaeRobertson, 1891CT-DE-MA-MD-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVCommonSpringClaytonia L.
Andrena (Tylandrena) erythrogaster(Ashmead, 1890)CT-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommon-UncommonSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Leucandrena) erythroniiRobertson, 1891CT-FL-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommonSpringErythronium L.
Andrena (Gonandrena) fragilisSmith, 1853CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-WVCommonSummerCornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Andrena) frigidaSmith, 1853CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VACommon-UncommonSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) fulvipennisSmith, 1853AL-DE-FL-GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-SCRareFallChrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) gardineriCockerell, 1906AL-FL-GA-MD-MS-NC-SC-VA-WVUncommonSpringPackera Á. Löve & D. Löve
Andrena (Euandrena) geraniiRobertson, 1891FL-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVUncommonSpringHydrophyllum L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) helianthiRobertson, 1891CT-MA-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VAUncommon-RareSummerHelianthus L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) hirticinctaProvancher, 1888CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommonFallEuthamia Nutt ex. Cass., Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Micrandrena) illinoiensisRobertson, 1891MD-NY-VARareSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Gonandrena) integraSmith, 1853CT-MA-ME-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VTUncommonSummerCornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Scrapteropsis) kalmiaeAtwood, 1934CT-MA-ME-NHUncommonSpringEricaceae, e.g. Kalmia L., Lyonia Nutt., Vaccinium L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) krigianaRobertson, 1901AL-CT-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVUncommonSpringCichorieae, e.g. Krigia Schreb.
Andrena (Micrandrena) lamellitergaRibble, 1968MD-PA-VARareSpringPhacelia Juss.
Andrena (Andrena) macoupinensisRobertson, 1900AL-FL-GA-MD-MS-NC-PA-SC-VAUncommonSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Trachandrena) mariaeRobertson, 1891GA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-RI-VA-WVUncommonSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) melanochroaCockerell, 1898CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-VA-WVUncommonSpringRosaceae, e.g. Fragaria L.
Andrena (Parandrena) nidaMitchell, 1960AL-FL-GA-MD-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-RI-VA-WVUncommonSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) nigraeRobertson, 1905AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVUncommonSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) nubeculaSmith, 1853CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommon-UncommonFallSolidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Gonandrena) perisimulataViereck, 1917CT-MA-ME-NH-NYUncommonSummerCornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Euandrena) phaceliaeMitchell, 1960MD-NC-VA-WVRareSpringPhacelia Juss.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) placataMitchell, 1960CT-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommonFallAstereae, e.g. Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Gonandrena) platypariaRobertson, 1895CT-FL-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VAUncommonSummerCornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Euandrena) polemoniiRobertson, 1891WVRareSpringPolemonium L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) rudbeckiaeRobertson, 1891DE-FL-LA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PARareSummerRatibida Raf., Rudbeckia L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) salictariaRobertson, 1905CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommon-RareSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Trachandrena) sigmundiCockerell, 1902CT-GA-MA-ME-NC-NH-RI-VTCommonSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) simplexSmith, 1853AL-CT-DE-GA-LA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVCommonFallSolidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Derandrena) uvulariae*Mitchell, 1960MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVRareSpringUvularia L.
Andrena (Iomelissa) violaeRobertson, 1891CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVCommon-UncommonSpringViola L.
Andrena (Parandrena) wellesleyana Robertson, 1897CT-MA-RIUncommonSpringSalix L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) ziziaeRobertson, 1891CT-GA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVCommon-UncommonSpringZizia W.D.J. Koch
Andrena (Derandrena) ziziaeformis Cockerell, 1908CT-DE-GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommon-RareSpringPotentilla L., Waldsteinia Willd.
Andrenidae: Panurginae: CalliopsiniCalliopsis (Calliopsima) coloradensisCresson, 1878AL-GA-LA-MS-NCUncommon-RareSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Grindelia Willd.
Calliopsis (Verbenapis) nebraskensis**Crawford, 1902CT-NJRareSummerVerbena L.
Andrenidae: Panurginae: Panurgini: PanurginiaPanurginus atramontensisCrawford, 1926GA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-VARareSpringVaccinium (Polycodium) L.
Panurginus potentillae(Crawford, 1916)CT-GA-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VAUncommon-RareSpringPotentilla L.
Andrenidae: Panurginae: Panurgini: PerditinaPerdita (Cockerellia) albipennisCresson, 1868MSRareFallAsteraceae
Perdita (Cockerellia) bequaertiViereck, 1917AL-FL-GA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-SCUncommon-RareSummerAsteraceae e.g. Helianthus L.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) bishoppiCockerell, 1906AL-FL-GA-DE-MD-MS-NC-NJ-SCRareFallChrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) boltoniae(Robertson, 1902)DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VARareFallChrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Perdita (Perdita) consobrinaTimberlake, 1928AL-FL-NC-SC-VARareFallAsteraceae, e.g. Astereae
Perdita (Perdita) discretaTimberlake, 1954NC-SCRareFallAsteraceae: Astereae e.g. Heterotheca Cass.
Perdita (Alloperdita) floridensisTimberlake, 1928FL-NCRareSummerIlex L.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) foveataTimberlake, 1956FLRareSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Coreopsis L.
Perdita (Perdita) georgicaTimberlake, 1928FL-GA-MS-NCUncommonFallChrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Perdita (Perdita) gerardiaeCrawford, 1932FL-MD-MS-NC-NJ-SCRareFallAgalinis Raf.
Perdita (Perdita) gerhardiViereck, 1904FL-MD-NC-NJ-VA-WVRareSummerMonarda L.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) graenicheri Timberlake, 1947FLRareFallChrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Perdita (Perdita) halictoidesSmith, 1853FL-GA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-VTUncommon-RareSummerPhysalis L.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) ignotaCockerell, 1896LAUncommon-RareFallAsteraceae: Astereae e.g. Heterotheca Cass.
Perdita (Perdita) maculigeraCockerell, 1896NYRareFallSalix L.
Perdita (Alloperdita) novaeangliaeViereck, 1907FL-CT-MA-NC-RI-SCUncommonSummerLyonia Nutt.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) nubilaTimberlake, 1958FLRareSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Erigeron L.
Perdita (Alloperdita) obscurataCresson, 1878AL-FL-GA-MS-NCUncommon-RareSpringVaccinium L.
Perdita (Perdita) octomaculata(Say, 1824)AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommon-UncommonFallAstereae, e.g. Solidago L.
Perdita (Perdita) polygonellaeTimberlake, 1954AL-FL-NCRareFallPolygonella Michx.
Perdita (Perdita) swenkiCrawford, 1915NJ-NYRareSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Astereae
Andrenidae: Panurginae: ProtandreniniProtandrena abdominalis(Cresson, 1878)GA-MD-NC-NJ-PA-VA-WVRareSummerMonarda L.
Andrenidae: Panurginae: ProtandreniniPseudopanurgus aestivalis(Provancher, 1882)CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-VTRareFallAstereae, e.g. Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Pseudopanurgus albitarsis(Cresson, 1872)GA-NC-VARareSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Heliantheae
Pseudopanurgus andrenoides(Smith, 1853)CT-MA-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-VA-WVUncommonFallAsteraceae, e.g. Astereae
Pseudopanurgus compositarum (Robertson, 1893)CT-DE-GA-LA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommonFallAsteraceae, e.g. Astereae
Pseudopanurgus illinoiensis(Cresson, 1878)FL-LA-MD-NC-VARareSpringAsteraceae
Pseudopanurgus labrosiformis(Robertson, 1898)GA-MD-NC-VA-WVRareSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Heliantheae
Pseudopanurgus labrosus(Robertson, 1895)CT-NC-VA-WVUncommonSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Heliantheae
Pseudopanurgus passifloraeRobertson, 1897NCRareSummerPassiflora L.
Pseudopanurgus pauper(Cresson, 1878)CT-FL-GA-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVRareSummerCeanothus L.
Pseudopanurgus rugosus(Robertson, 1895)AL-FL-GA-MD-MS-NC-SC-VAUncommon-RareSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Heliantheae
Pseudopanurgus solidaginis(Robertson, 1893)AL-MD-MS-NCUncommonSummerAsteraceae
Pseudopanurgus virginicus(Cockerell, 1907)AL-GA-MD-NC-VA-WVRareSpringCeanothus L., Houstonia L.
Apidae: Apinae: AnthophoriniHabropoda laboriosa(Fabricius, 1804)AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VACommon-UncommonSpringCercis L., Vaccinium L.
Apidae: Apinae: EmphoriniDiadasia (Coquillettapis) afflica(Cresson, 1878)LARareSpringMalvaceae, e.g. Callirhoe Nutt.
Apidae: Apinae: EmphoriniMelitoma taurea(Say, 1837)AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-PA-SC-VA-WVCommonSummerCalystegia R. Br., Ipomoea L.
Apidae: Apinae: EmphoriniPtilothrix bombiformis(Cresson, 1878)AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVCommon-UncommonSummerHibiscus L.
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniCemolobus ipomoeae(Robertson, 1891)AL-GA-MD-NC-PA-VA-WVRareSummerCalystegia R. Br., Ipomoea L.
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniFlorilegus (Florilegus) condignus(Cresson, 1878)AL-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-SC-VAUncommon-RareSummerPontederia L.
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniMelissodes (Eumelissodes) agilisCresson, 1878AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommon-UncommonSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L.
Melissodes (Apomelissodes) apicatusLovell and Cockerell, 1906CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NYUncommon-RareSummerPontederia L.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) boltoniaeRobertson, 1905AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NY-PA-SC-VAUncommonFallAsteraceae
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) denticulatusSmith, 1854AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVCommon-UncommonFallAsteraceae, e.g.Vernonia Schreb.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) dentiventrisSmith, 1854AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VAUncommonFallAsteraceae
Melissodes (Heliomelissodes) desponsusSmith, 1854AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommonFallAsteraceae, e.g. Cirsium Mill
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) druriellus(Kirby, 1802)AL-CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVUncommonFallAsteraceae
Melissodes (Apomelissodes) fimbriatusCresson, 1878MS-NC-VARareSummerOenothera L.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) fumosusLaBerge, 1961MD-MS-NC-SC-VARareFallAsteraceae, e.g. Solidago L.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) illatusLovell and Cockerell, 1906ME-NC-NY-WVUncommonFallAsteraceae
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) manipularisSmith, 1854FL-GA-NC-SCRareFallAsteraceae
Melissodes (Apomelissodes) mitchelliLaBerge, 1956FL-GA-NC-SCRareSpringOpuntia Mill.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) niveusRobertson, 1895AL-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-VAUncommonFallAsteraceae
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) pilleatusLaBerge, 1961NCRareFallAsteraceae
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) subillatusLaBerge, 1961CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommonFallAsteraceae
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) tinctusLaBerge, 1961FL-GA-LA-MS-NC-SCRareFallAsteraceae
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) trinodisRobertson, 1901CT-DE-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NJ-NY-RI-VA-VTUncommonFallAsteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L.
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniPeponapis (Peponapis) pruinosa(Say, 1837)CT-DE-GA-LA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WV CommonSummerCucurbita L.
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniSvastra (Epimelissodes) aegis(LaBerge, 1956)AL-FL-GA-LA-MS-NC-SCUncommonSummerAsteraceae
Svastra (Anthedonia) compta(Cresson, 1878)GA-MD-NC-NJ-PAUncommonSummerOenothera L.
Svastra (Epimelissodes) obliqua(Say, 1837)AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VAUncommonSummerAsteraceae
Svastra (Epimelissodes) petulca(Cresson, 1878)AL-FL-GA-LA-MS-NC-NJ-SCUncommon-RareSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Heliantheae
Apidae: Apinae: EuceriniXenoglossa (Eoxenoglossa) kansensisCockerell, 1905FL-NC-SCRarreSummerCucurbita L., Ipomoea L.
Xenoglossa (Eoxenoglossa) strenua(Cresson, 1878)AL-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-SC-VAUncommonSummerCucurbita L.
Apidae: Apinae: ExomalopsiniAnthophorula (Anthophorisca) asteris(Mitchell, 1962)GA-LA-MSRareFallSymphyotrichum Nees
Anthophorula (Anthophorisca) micheneriTimberlake, 1948MS-VARareFallAgalinis Raf.
ColletidaeColletes aestivalisPatton, 1879DE-GA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NY-VARareSummerHeuchera L.
Colletes americanusCresson, 1868CT-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVCommon-UncommonFallAsteraceae, e.g. Astereae
Colletes banksiSwenk, 1908CT-FL-GA-LA-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VARareSummerIlex L.
Colletes brevicornisRobertson, 1897FL-GA-LA-MD-NC-NJ-SC-VA-WVUncommonSpringCampanula L., Triodanis Raf. ex Greene
Colletes brimleyiMitchell, 1951FL-GA-NC-NJ-SCRareSpringIlex L.
Colletes francesaeDeyrup & Deyrup, 2011FL RareSummerSideroxylon L.
Colletes compactusCresson, 1868CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVCommonFallAsteraceae
Colletes howardiSwenk, 1925FL-NC RareFallFabaceae, e.g. Dalea L.
Colletes latitarsisRobertson, 1891AL-CT-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVUncommonSummerPhysalis L.
Colletes productusRobertson, 1891AL-CT-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-SC-VA-WVUncommon-RareSummerLyonia Nutt., Vaccinium L.
Colletes simulansCresson, 1868AL-CT-FL-GA-MA-MD-ME-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VA-VT-WVCommonFallEuthamia Nutt. ex Cass. , Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Colletes solidaginisSwenk, 1906CT-MA-MD-MS-NC-NH-NJ-NY-VA-VTUncommon-RareFallSolidago L.
Colletes speculiferusCockerell, 1927CT-DE-FL-GA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-RI-SC-VAUncommonFallAsteraceae, e.g. Astereae
Colletes thysanellaeMitchell, 1951AL-FL-GA-NC-SC-VARareFallAsteraceae, e.g. Astereae
Colletes ultravalidusHall & Ascher, 2016FLRareSpringEricaceae
Colletes validusCresson, 1868CT-DE-GA-MA-ME-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-SC-VAUncommonSpringEricaceae, e.g. Vaccinium L.
Colletes willistoniRobertson, 1891FL-GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-VARareSummerPhysalis L.
Halictidae: Halictinae: HalictiniLasioglossum (Hemihalictus) lustrans(Cockerell, 1897)AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-SC-VARareSummerPyrrhopappus DC.
Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) oenotherae(Stevens, 1920)CT-GA-LA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVUncommonSummerOenothera L.
Lasioglossum (Hemihalictus) pectinatum(Robertson, 1890)CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVRareSummerPhysalis L.
Halictidae: NomiinaeDieunomia (Dieunomia) heteropoda(Say, 1824)AL-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-SC-VAUncommon-RareFallBidens L., Helianthus L.
Dieunomia (Epinomia) nevadensis(Cresson, 1874)AL-FL-LA-MD-MS-NCUncommon-RareSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Astereae
Halictidae: RophitinaeDufourea monardae(Viereck, 1924)CT-MA-NJ-NYRareSummerMonarda L.
Dufourea novaeangliae(Robertson, 1897)CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VTCommon-RareSummerPontederia L.
Megachilidae: AnthidiiniDianthidium (Dianthidium) curvatum(Smith, 1854)AL-FL-GA-MS-NC-SCUncommonSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Astereae
Dianthidium (Dianthidium) simile(Cresson, 1864)CT-MA-ME-NJ-NYRareFallAsteraceae, e.g. Astereae
Megachilidae: AnthidiiniParanthidium (Paranthidium) jugatorium(Say, 1824)AL-GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-SC-VA-WVUncommon-RareSummerHelianthus L.
Megachilidae: AnthidiiniTrachusa (Heteranthidium) dorsalis(Lepeletier, 1841)AL-GA-MS-NC-NJRareSummerStrophostyles Elliot
Trachusa (Heteranthidium) zebrata(Cresson, 1872)LA-MSRareSummerAsteraceae
Megachilidae: LithurginaeLithugopsis gibbosus(Smith, 1853)AL-FL-GA_NC-SCUncommon-RareSpringOpuntia Mill.
Megachilidae: MegachiliniMegachile (Megachiloides) brimleyiMitchell, 1926FL-GA-NCUncommonSummerGalactia P. Br.
Megachile (Sayapis) inimicaCresson, 1872AL-CT-DE-FL-GA-LA-MA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-PA-SC-VA-WVUncommonSummerAsteraceae
Megachile (Megachiloides) integraCresson, 1878AL-FL-GA-MD-NC-NJ-SCRareSummerGalactia P. Br., Strophostyles Elliot
Megachile (Megachiloides) oenotherae(Mitchell, 1924)GA-LA-NC-NJRareSpringOenothera L.
Megachile (Argyropile) parallelaSmith, 1853FL-GA-LA-MS-NC-VARareSummerAsteraceae
Megachile (Sayapis) pugnataSay, 1837CT-DE-GA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVUncommonSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L.
Megachile (Melanosarus) xylocopoidesSmith, 1853AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-SC-VAUncommonSummerAsteraceae
Megachilidae: OsmiiniAshmeadiella (Ashmeadiella) bucconis(Say, 1837)GA-LA-NCRareSummerAsteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L.
Megachilidae: OsmiiniHoplitis (Robertsonella) micheneriMitchell, 1962FL-GA-NC-SCUncommon-RareSpringAmorpha L.td>
Hoplitis (Robertsonella) simplex(Cresson, 1864)DE-MD-NC-NJ-SC-VA-WVRareSpringNemophila Nutt., Phacelia Juss.
Megachilidae: OsmiiniOsmia (Melanosmia) calaminthaeRightmyer, Deyrup, Ascher, & Griswold, 2011FLRareSpringCalamintha Mill
Osmia (Helicosmia) chalybeaSmith, 1853AL-DE-FL-GA-LA-MD-MS-NC-NJ-NY-VA-WVRareSummerCirsium Mill
Osmia (Melanosmia) distinctaCresson, 1864CT-FL-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVUncommonSpringPenstemon Schmidel
Osmia (Helicosmia) texanaCresson, 1872MD-VA-WVRareSummerCirsium Mill
Osmia (Melanosmia) virgaSandhouse, 1939CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVUncommonSpringVaccinium L.
Melittidae: Dasypodainae: HesperapiniHesperapis (Carinapis) orariaSnelling & Stage, 1997AL-FL-MSRareFallAsteraceae
Melittidae: Melittinae: MacropidiniMacropis (Macropis) ciliataPatton, 1880CT-GA-MA-MD-ME-NC-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VAUncommon-RareSummerLysimachia L.
Macropis (Macropis) nuda(Provancher, 1882)CT-MA-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VT-WVUncommon-RareSummerLysimachia L.
Macropis (Macropis) patellataPatton, 1880CT-MA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VTRareSummerLysimachia L.
Macropis (Macropis) steironematisRobertson, 1891GA-NC-VARareSummerLysimachia L.
Melittidae: Melittinae: MelittiniMelitta (Cilissa) americana(Smith, 1853)AL-CT-FL-GA-LA-MA-MS-NC-NJ-NYUncommon-RareSummerVaccinium L.
Melitta (Cilissa) eickwortiSnelling & Stage, 1995GA-MD-NC-NJ-NY-WVRareSpringVaccinium (Polycodium) L.
Melitta (Cilissa) melittoides(Viereck, 1909)CT-GA-MA-MD-NC-NH-NJ-PA-SC-VARareSummerLyonia Nutt.
* Subgeneric placement and state records based in part on unpublished work by M. Arduser, J. S. Ascher, P. Bernhardt, S. Droege, R. Meier, and S.-X. Ren.
** The first record for New England is from collections made by D. Wagner et al. and identified by J. S. Ascher.

Recommendations

Pollinator habitat conservation and enhancement projects should prioritize practices that foster diverse communities of native specialist bees and associated host plants. Site-specific practices including beetle banks, companion plants, cover crops, field borders, hedgerows, insectaries, meadows, pastures, prairies, and riparian buffers should be conserved primarily for specialist host plants and secondarily for generalist pollenizers. Such practices protect native specialist bees from population declines and extinctions, while identically supporting other managed and wild beneficial insects, providing wildlife habitat, reducing weeds and erosion, improving soil health and water quality, regulating pests, offering harvestable products, and bettering aesthetics (Garibaldi et al. 2014; Kleijn et al. 2015; Wratten et al. 2012). Therefore, habitat conservation and enhancement for native specialist bees works synergistically to promote environmental, social, and economic regenerability and sustainability in the Eastern United States (Fowler, 2016a, 2016b).

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Michael S. Arduser (Missouri Department of Conservation), John S. Ascher (National University of Singapore), Daniel P. Cariveau (University of Minnesota), Mark A. Deyrup (Archbold Biological Station), Charles S. Eiseman (freelance naturalist), Jason Gibbs (Michigan State University), Glen Hall (University of Florida), John L. Neff (Central Texas Melittological Institute), Robert P. Jean (Environmental Solutions & Innovations, Inc), T'ai H. Roulston (University of Virginia), Kimberly A. Stoner (Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station), and Michael Veit (freelance naturalist) for comments. We greatly appreciate the efforts of the Discover Life, Go Botany, and USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database groups to compile distribution and natural history information for bees and plants.

References

Visit: Host plants for specialist bees of the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States

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