Specialist bees of the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States

Jarrod Fowler, The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, Amherst, MA, USA
Sam Droege, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA

Updated 16XII2016

Introduction

Approximately 30% of the ~450 species of bees native to the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States are pollen specialists. Pollen specialist bees evolved a continuum of facultative or obligate associations with flowering host plants (Cane & Sipes 2006; Hurd et al. 1980; Linsley & MacSwain 1956; Robertson 1925). While polyleges forage unrelated plants, oligoleges generally associate with one host plant family or a few related genera or species and monoleges specifically associate with a single host plant genus or species (Cane & Sipes 2006; Robertson 1925). Such associations can benefit both bee and flower from improved foraging effectiveness and efficiency, pollen digestibility, and pollination rates, but foraging restrictions may create greater susceptibility to harm from pollen shortages due to habitat degradation, fragmentation, and loss or phenological mismatch (Minckley et al. 1994; Rafferty et al. 2014). Thus, contemporary anthropogenic threats in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States potentially imperil native specialist bee species and their endemic, indigenous host plant species with population declines and extinctions through loss of species diversity.

Methods

Records of native specialist bees captured or observed on flowers of host plants were compiled from online sources (Ascher & Pickering 2016, Hilty 2012), peer reviewed articles (Bouseman & La Berge 1978; La Berge 1969, 1971, 1973, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1986, 1989; La Berge & Bouseman 1970; La Berge & Ribble 1972, 1975; Robertson 1926, 1929), technical bulletins (Krombein et al. 1979; La Berge 1967; Mitchell 1960, 1962), and personal communications. If bees and plants are indigenous to the Mid-Atlantic and Northeast region without human intervention, then bees and plants were defined native. Bee-plant records were compared with state-level plant distributions from the USDA Plants Database (USDA NRCS 2015) and county-level distributions from Go Botany [2.2] (New England Wildflower Society 2015). Our study includes only host plant genera that are native and documented as present in at least one county of at least one of the thirteen regional states: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia. Because plant taxonomy has undergone major recent changes, many names have been updated compared to those published in the original literature of bee-plant associations.

Results

A summary of Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern native specialist bee species are alphabetically tabulated with associated host plant families in Table 1. Six families, 27 genera, and 139 species of specialist bees were listed. The bee family with the most specialists was Andrenidae (76 spp.) and bee genus was Andrena (52 spp.). Of the 138 bee species, 70 were considered regionally rare, while 66 were regionally uncommon. Generally, the seasons of peak-activity for specialist bees relative to associated host plant flowering phenology were Summer (55 spp.), Spring (44 spp.), and Fall (38 spp.). Overall, the states most inhabited by specialist bees were: MD (107 spp.), VA (107 spp.), and NJ (102 spp.). Of the 138 species of specialist bees, eight spp. were found in all 13 regional states. The most recurrent host plant family amongst specialist bee species was Asteraceae L. (59 spp.). The most recurrent host plant genera associations amongst specialist bee species were Salix L. (14 spp.), Solidago L. (11 spp.), Vaccinium L. (9 spp.), Helianthus L. (7 spp.), and Symphyotrichum Nees (7 spp.).

Tables

Table 1. Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern native specialist bee families (n = 6), genera (n = 27), and species (n = 138) with taxonomic authorities, recorded states according to records from 13 states (CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, and WV), seasons of peak activity (Spring, Summer, or Fall), regional conservation status (Common, Rare, or Uncommon), and host plant genera. Bee families and member genera and species are presented in ascending alphabetical order. Bee species link to Discover Life species profiles. Host plant genera link to USDA PLANTS Database genera profiles: view 'Subordinate Taxa' tabs for regional host plant species.
FamilyGenus (Subgenus) speciesAuthorityRecorded statesPeak activityStatusHost-plant Genera
AndrenidaeAndrena (Callandrens) acceptaViereck, 1916MD-NJ-NY-VAFallRareHelianthus L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) aliciaeRobertson, 1891CT-DE-MA-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSummerRareHelianthus L.
Andrena (Parandrena) andrenoides(Cresson, 1878)MD-NJ-NY-VASpringRareSalix L.
Andrena (Scaphandrena) arabisRobertson, 1897CT-DE-MA-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSpringUncommonArabis L., Cardamine L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) asterisRobertson, 1891CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVFallCommonSolidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) asteroidesMitchell, 1960MD-NJ-PA-VAFallRareSymphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Thysandrena) bisalicisViereck, 1908CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVSpringCommon-UncommonSalix L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) braccataViereck, 1907CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VAFallCommon-RareEuthamia Nutt. ex Cass., Solidago L.
Andrena (Conandrena) bradleyiViereck, 1907CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VASpringCommon-UncommonGaylussacia Kunth, Vaccinium L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) canadensisDalla Torre, 1896CT-MA-ME-NH-NJ-NY-RI-VA-VTFallCommon-UncommonSolidago L.
Andrena (Andrena) carolinaViereck, 1909CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVSpringCommon-UncommonVaccinium L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) chromotrichaCockerell, 1899NY-PA-WVFallRareAsteraceae
Andrena (Andrena) clarkella(Kirby, 1802)CT-MA-ME-NH-NY-RI-VT-WVSpringCommon-RareSalix L.
Andrena (Andrena) cornelliViereck, 1907CT-MA-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VASpringUncommonRhododendron L.
Andrena (Ptilandrena) distansProvancher, 1888CT-MA-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VASpringCommon-UncommonGeranium L.
Andrena (Callandrena) duplicataMitchell, 1960CT-NJ-NYFallRareAsteraceae
Andrena (Ptilandrena) erigeniaeRobertson, 1891CT-DE-MA-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSpringCommonClaytonia L.
Andrena (Tylandrena) erythrogaster(Ashmead, 1890)CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVSpringCommon-UncommonSalix L.
Andrena (Leucandrena) erythroniiRobertson, 1891CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSpringUncommonErythronium L.
Andrena (Gonandrena) fragilisSmith, 1853CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVSummerCommonCornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Andrena) frigidaSmith, 1853CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VASpringCommon-UncommonSalix L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) fulvipennisSmith, 1853DE-MD-NJ-NYFallRareChrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) gardineriCockerell, 1906MD-VA-WVSpringUncommonPackera Á. Löve & D. Löve
Andrena (Euandrena) geraniiRobertson, 1891MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVSpringUncommonHydrophyllum L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) helianthiRobertson, 1891CT-MA-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VASummerUncommon-RareHelianthus L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) hirticinctaProvancher, 1888CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVFallCommonEuthamia Nutt ex. Cass., Solidago L.
Andrena (Gonandrena) integraSmith, 1853CT-MA-ME-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VTSummerUncommonCornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) illinoiensisRobertson, 1891MD-NY-VASpringRareSalix L.
Andrena (Scrapteropsis) kalmiaeAtwood, 1934CT-MA-ME-NHSpringUncommonKalmia L., Lyonia Nutt., Vaccinium L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) krigianaRobertson, 1901CT-MA-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSpringUncommonKrigia Schreb.
Andrena (Micrandrena) lamellitergaRibble, 1968MD-PA-VASpringRarePhacelia Juss.
Andrena (Andrena) macoupinensisRobertson, 1900MD-PA-VASpringUncommonSalix L.
Andrena (Trachandrena) mariaeRobertson, 1891MD-NH-NJ-RI-VA-WVSpringUncommonSalix L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) melanochroaCockerell, 1898CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-VA-WVSpringUncommonRosaceae, e.g. Fragaria L.
Andrena (Parandrena) nidaMitchell, 1960MD-NH-NJ-NY-RI-VA-WVSpringUncommonSalix L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) nigraeRobertson, 1905CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVSpringUncommonSalix L.
Andrena (Cnemidandrena) nubeculaSmith, 1853CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVFallCommon-UncommonSolidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Gonandrena) perisimulataViereck, 1917CT-MA-ME-NH-NYSummerUncommonCornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Euandrena) phaceliaeMitchell, 1960MD-VA-WVSpringRarePhacelia Juss.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) placataMitchell, 1960CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVFallCommonSolidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Gonandrena) platypariaRobertson, 1895CT-MA-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VASummerUncommonCornus (Swida) L.
Andrena (Euandrena) polemoniiRobertson, 1891WVSpringRarePolemonium L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) rudbeckiaeRobertson, 1891DE-MD-NJ-NY-PASummerRareRudbeckia L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) salictariaRobertson, 1905CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVSpringCommon-RareSalix L.
Andrena (Tranchandrena) sigmundiCockerell, 1902CT-MA-ME-NH-RI-VTSpringCommonSalix L.
Andrena (Callandrena s.l.) simplexSmith, 1853CT-DE-MA-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVFallCommonSolidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Andrena (Derandrena) uvulariae*Mitchell, 1960MA-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSpringRareUvularia L.
Andrena (Iomelissa) violaeRobertson, 1891CT-DE-MA-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSpringCommon-UncommonViola L.
Andrena (Parandrena) wellesleyana Robertson, 1897CT-MA-RISpringUncommonSalix L.
Andrena (Micrandrena) ziziaeRobertson, 1891CT-MA-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVSpringCommon-UncommonZizia W.D.J. Koch
Andrena (Derandrena) ziziaeformis Cockerell, 1908CT-DE-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSpringUncommon-RarePotentilla L., Waldsteinia Willd.
AndrenidaeCalliopsis (Verbenapis) nebraskensis**Crawford, 1902CT-NJSummerRareVerbena L.
AndrenidaePanurginus atramontensisCrawford, 1926MD-NJ-VASpringRareVaccinium (Polycodium) L.
Panurginus potentillae(Crawford, 1916)CT-MA-MD-NJ-NY-VASpringUncommon-RarePotentilla L.
AndrenidaePerdita (Cockerellia) bequaertiViereck, 1917MD-NJ-NYSummerRareAsteraceae
Perdita (Hexaperdita) bishoppiCockerell, 1906)DE-MD-NJFallRareChrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Perdita (Hexaperdita) boltoniae(Robertson, 1902)DE-MD-NJ-NY-VAFallRareChrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliot, Heterotheca Cass., Pityopsis Nutt.
Perdita (Perdita) consobrinaTimberlake, 1928VAFallRareAsteraceae
Perdita (Perdita) gerardiaeCrawford, 1932MD-NJFallRareAgalinis Raf.
Perdita (Perdita) gerhardiViereck, 1904MD-NJ-VA-WVSummerRareMonarda L.
Perdita (Perdita) halictoidesSmith, 1853MA-MD-NH-NJ-NY-VTSummerUncommon-RarePhysalis L.
Perdita (Perdita) maculigeraCockerell, 1896)NYFallRareSalix L.
Perdita (Alloperdita) novaeangliaeViereck, 1907CT-MA-RISummerUncommonLyonia Nutt.
Perdita (Perdita) octomaculata(Say, 1824)CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-RI-VA-VT-WVFallCommon-UncommonSolidago L.
Perdita (Perdita) swenkiCrawford, 1915NJ-NYSummerRareAsteraceae
AndrenidaeProtandrena abdominalis(Cresson, 1878)MD-NJ-PA-VA-WVSummerRareMonarda L.
AndrenidaePseudopanurgus aestivalis(Provancher, 1882)CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-VTFallRareSolidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Pseudopanurgus albitarsis(Cresson, 1872)VASummerRareAsteraceae
Pseudopanurgus andrenoides(Smith, 1853)CT-MA-ME-NJ-NH-NY-VA-WVFallUncommonAsteraceae
Pseudopanurgus compositarum (Robertson, 1893)CT-DE-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVFallUncommonAsteraceae
Pseudopanurgus illinoiensis(Cresson, 1878)MD-VASpringRareAsteraceae
Pseudopanurgus labrosiformis(Robertson, 1898)MD-WVSummerRareAsteraceae
Pseudopanurgus labrosus(Robertson, 1895)CT-VA-WVSummerUncommonAsteraceae
Pseudopanurgus pauper(Cresson, 1878)CT-MA-MD-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVSummerRareCeanothus L.
Pseudopanurgus rugosus(Robertson, 1895)MD-VASummerUncommonAsteraceae
Pseudopanurgus virginicus(Cockerell, 1907)MD-VA-WVSpringRareHoustonia L.
ApidaeAnthophorula (Anthophorisca) micheneriTimberlake, 1948VAFallRareAgalinis Raf.
ApidaeCemolobus ipomoeae(Robertson, 1891)MD-PA-VA-WVSummerRareCalystegia R. Br., Ipomoea L.
ApidaeFlorilegus (Florilegus) condignus(Cresson, 1878)MD-NJ-VASummerRarePontederia L.
ApidaeHabropoda laboriosa(Fabricius, 1804)CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VASpringCommon-UncommonCercis L., Vaccinium L.
ApidaeMelissodes (Eumelissodes) agilisCresson, 1878CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVSummerCommon-UncommonAsteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L.
Melissodes (Apomelissodes) apicatusLovell and Cockerell, 1906CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NYSummerUncommon-RarePontederia L.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) boltoniaeRobertson, 1905DE-MD-NY-PA-VAFallUncommonAsteraceae
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) denticulatusSmith, 1854CT-DE-MA-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVFallUncommonAsteraceae, e.g.Vernonia Schreb.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) dentiventrisSmith, 1854CT-DE-MA-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VAFallUncommonAsteraceae
Melissodes (Heliomelissodes) desponsusSmith, 1854CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVFallCommonAsteraceae, e.g. Cirsium Mill
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) druriellus(Kirby, 1802)CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVFallUncommonAsteraceae
Melissodes (Apomelissodes) fimbriatusCresson, 1878VASummerRareOenothera L.
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) fumosusLaBerge, 1961MD-VAFallRareAsteraceae
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) illatusLovell and Cockerell, 1906ME-NY-WVFallUncommonAsteraceae
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) niveusRobertson, 1895MD-NJ-NY-VAFallUncommonAsteraceae
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) subillatusLaBerge, 1961CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVFallUncommonAsteraceae
Melissodes (Eumelissodes) trinodisRobertson, 1901CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NJ-NY-RI-VA-VTFallUncommonAsteraceae
ApidaeMelitoma taurea(Say, 1837)DE-MD-NJ-PA-VA-WVSummerCommonCalystegia R. Br., Ipomoea L.
ApidaePeponapis (Peponapis) pruinosa(Say, 1837) CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WV SummerCommonCucurbita L.
ApidaePtilothrix bombiformis(Cresson, 1878)CT-DE-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSummerCommon-UncommonHibiscus L.
ApidaeSvastra (Anthedonia) compta(Cresson, 1878)MD-NJ-PASummerUncommonOenothera L.
Svastra (Epimelissodes) obliqua(Say, 1837)DE-MD-NJ-NY-VASummerUncommonAsteraceae
Svastra (Epimelissodes) petulca(Cresson, 1878)NJSummerRareAsteraceae
ApidaeXenoglossa (Eoxenoglossa) strenua(Cresson, 1878)MD-VASummerUncommonCucurbita L.
ColletidaeColletes aestivalisPatton, 1879DE-MA-MD-NY-VASummerRareHeuchera L.
Colletes banksiSwenk, 1908CT-NJ-NY-VASummerRareIlex L.
Colletes brevicornisRobertson, 1897MD-NJ-VA-WVSpringUncommonCampanula L., Triodanis Raf. ex Greene
Colletes compactusCresson, 1868CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVFallCommonAsteraceae
Colletes latitarsisRobertson, 1891CT-MA-MD-ME-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSummerUncommonPhysalis L.
Colletes productusRobertson, 1891CT-MA-MD-NH-NJ-VA-WVSummerUncommon-RareLyonia Nutt., Vaccinium L.
Colletes simulansCresson, 1868CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VT-WVFallCommonEuthamia Nutt. ex Cass. , Solidago L., Symphyotrichum Nees
Colletes solidaginisSwenk, 1906CT-MA-MD-NH-NJ-NY-VA-VTFallUncommon-RareSolidago L.
Colletes speculiferusCockerell, 1927CT-DE-MA-MD-NJ-NY-RI-VAFallUncommonAsteraceae
Colletes thysanellaeMitchell, 1951VAFallRareAsteraceae
Colletes validusCresson, 1868CT-DE-MA-ME-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VASpringUncommonEricaceae
Colletes willistoniRobertson, 1891MD-NJ-NY-PA-VASummerRarePhysalis L.
HalictidaeDieunomia (Dieunomia) heteropoda(Say, 1824)MD-NJ-VAFallRareBidens L., Helianthus L.
Dieunomia (Epinomia) nevadensis(Cresson, 1874)MDSummerRareAsteraceae
HalictidaeDufourea monardae(Viereck, 1924)CT-MA-NJ-NYSummerRareMonarda L.
Dufourea novaeangliae(Robertson, 1897)CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VTSummerCommon-RarePontederia L.
HalictidaeLasioglossum (Hemihalictus) lustrans(Cockerell, 1897)DE-MD-VASummerRarePyrrhopappus DC.
Lasioglossum (Sphecodogastra) oenotherae(Stevens, 1920)CT-MA-MD-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSummerUncommonOenothera L.
Lasioglossum (Hemihalictus) pectinatum(Robertson, 1890)CT-DE-MA-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSummerRarePhysalis L.
MegachilidaeHoplitis (Robertsonella) simplex(Cresson, 1864)DE-MD-NJ-VA-WVSpringRareNemophila Nutt., Phacelia Juss.
MegachilidaeMegachile (Sayapis) inimicaCresson, 1872CT-DE-MA-MD-NJ-NY-PA-VA-WVSummerUncommonAsteraceae
Megachile (Megachiloides) integraCresson, 1878MD-NJSummerRareGalactia P. Br., Strophostyles Elliot
Megachile (Megachiloides) oenotherae(Mitchell, 1924)NJSpringRareOenothera L.
Megachile (Argyropile) parallelaSmith, 1853VASummerRareAsteraceae
Megachile (Sayapis) pugnataSay, 1837CT-DE-MA-MD-NJ-NH-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVSummerUncommonAsteraceae, e.g. Helianthus L.
Megachile (Melanosarus) xylocopoidesSmith, 1853DE-MD-NJ-VASummerUncommonAsteraceae
MegachilidaeOsmia (Helicosmia) chalybeaSmith, 1853DE-MD-NJ-NY-VA-WVSummerRareCirsium Mill
Osmia (Melanosmia) distinctaCresson, 1864CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-VA-VT-WVSpringUncommonPenstemon Schmidel
Osmia (Helicosmia) texanaCresson, 1872MD-VA-WVSummerRareCirsium Mill
Osmia (Melanosmia) virgaSandhouse, 1939CT-DE-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-WVSpringUncommonVaccinium L.
MegachilidaeParanthidium (Paranthidium) jugatorium(Say, 1824)NJ-MD-NY-VA-WVSummerRareHelianthus L.
MegachilidaeTrachusa (Heteranthidium) dorsalis(Lepeletier, 1841)NJSummerRareStrophostyles Elliot
MelittidaeMacropis (Macropis) ciliataPatton, 1880CT-MA-MD-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VASummerUncommon-RareLysimachia L.
Macropis (Macropis) nuda(Provancher, 1882)CT-MA-ME-NH-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VT-WVSummerUncommon-RareLysimachia L.
Macropis (Macropis) patellataPatton, 1880CT-MA-MD-NJ-NY-PA-RI-VA-VTSummerRareLysimachia L.
Macropis (Macropis) steironematisRobertson, 1891VASummerRareLysimachia L.
MelittidaeMelitta (Cilissa) americana(Smith, 1853)CT-MA-NJ-NYSummerUncommon-RareVaccinium L.
Melitta (Cilissa) eickwortiSnelling & Stage, 1995MD-NJ-NY-WVSpringRareVaccinium (Polycodium) L.
Melitta (Cilissa) melittoides(Viereck, 1909)CT-MA-MD-NH-NJ-PA-VASummerRareLyonia Nutt.
* Subgeneric placement and state records based in part on unpublished work by M. Arduser, J. S. Ascher, P. Bernhardt, S. Droege, R. Meier, and S.-X. Ren.
** The first record for New England is from collections made by D. Wagner et al. and identified by J. S. Ascher.

Recommendations

Regional pollinator habitat conservation and enhancement projects should prioritize practices that foster diverse communities of native specialist bees and associated host plants. Site-specific practices including conservation cover; field, stream, and wetland borders; and hedgerows should be conserved primarily for specialist host plants and secondarily for generalist pollenizers. Such practices fundamentally protect native specialist bees from population declines and extinctions, while identically supporting other managed and wild beneficial insects, providing wildlife habitat, reducing weeds and erosion, improving water quality, offering harvestable products, and bettering aesthetics (Garibaldi et al. 2014; Kleijn et al. 2015; Wratten et al. 2012). Thus, habitat conservation and enhancement for native specialist bees works synergistically to promote environmental, social, and economic sustainability in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States (Fowler 2015, 2016a, 2016b).

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Michael S. Arduser (Missouri Department of Conservation), John S. Ascher (National University of Singapore), Daniel P. Cariveau (University of Minnesota), Charles S. Eiseman (freelance naturalist), Jason Gibbs (Michigan State University), John L. Neff (Central Texas Melittological Institute), Robert P. Jean (Environmental Solutions & Innovations, Inc), T'ai H. Roulston (University of Virginia), and Kimberly A. Stoner (Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station) for comments. We greatly appreciate the efforts of the Discover Life, Go Botany, and USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database groups to compile distribution and natural history information for bees and plants.

References

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